By OECD. Published by : OECD Publishing
This 6th variation of the OECD technology, expertise and Scoreboard presents a complete photo of nations' functionality within the components of technology, know-how, globalisation and industry. New symptoms handle rising coverage matters equivalent to the foreign mobility of scientists, innovation as measured through patent households, biotechnology, nanotechnology, new symptoms at the details economic climate, the function of establishment corporations, productiveness, company turnover and commercial functionality.
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Additional resources for OECD Science, Technology and Industry: Scoreboard 2003 (OECD Science, Technology, & Industry)
An (indicative, not exhaustive) list of biotechnology techniques and applications is used as an interpretative guide and includes: • DNA (the coding): genomics, pharmaco-genetics, gene probes, DNA sequencing/synthesis/ amplification, genetic engineering. • Proteins and molecules (the functional blocks): protein/peptide sequencing/synthesis, lipid/protein glyco-engineering, proteomics, hormones and growth factors, cell receptors/signalling/pheromones. • Cell and tissue culture and engineering : cell/tissue culture, tissue engineering, hybridisation, cellular fusion, vaccine/immune stimulants, embryo manipulation.
In contrast to the general trend, the share of defence research relative to GDP increased markedly in Spain and to a lesser extent in Sweden. The United Kingdom is the only country that experienced a significant drop. Characteristics of GBAORD GBAORD (government appropriations or outlays for R&D) measures the funds committed by the federal/ central government for R&D to be carried out in one of the four sectors of performance – business enterprise, government, higher education, private non-profit sector – at home or abroad (including by international organisations).
A. a. a. in 2001 62 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 1. Data refer to total tertiary education (ISCED 5A, 5B and 6). 2. Public and independent private institutions only. 3. Public institutions only. 4. Public and government-dependent private institutions only. 5. Average of the available countries. Source: OECD, Education database, May 2003. 2. Flows of university graduates • Flows of university graduates are an indicator of a country’s potential for diffusing advanced knowledge and supplying the labour market with highly skilled workers.