By Wilhelm Albrecht, Hilmar Fuchs, Walter Kittelmann
From the usage of fabric waste to the high-tech product - this can be how smooth nonwovens can top defined. net formation and net bonding strategies have lately being more suitable. these days, fibres, granulates, binder and completing brokers are used. This improvement includes a much wider diversity of purposes within the fields of hygiene, medication, the garment-producing and development industries, inside layout in addition to extra technical makes use of. This booklet offers complete information regarding nonwovens, from the uncooked fabric fibres through the producing procedures to completing and to the ready-made product. Nonwoven features and the fields of program are mentioned intimately in addition to the methods to be had to check the uncooked fabrics, the intermediate and the ultimate items.
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Extra info for Nonwoven Fabrics: Raw Materials, Manufacture, Applications, Characteristics, Testing Processes
The reason for this deformation is the rigidity of the individual fibres, which prevents them from altering their shape under pressure, so they slide off one another in course of time. Furthermore, it must be noted that jute may rot. Fig. 1 Natural fibres Flax (Linum usitatissimum) Flax, an annual, is harvested shortly before the seed grows ripe for the extraction of fibre. The harvest comes to approximately 4,000 kg/ha, which yields 600 kg to 1,000 kg of raw flax are gained. The fibres embedded in the parenchyma of the stem in a high concentration are freed by retting.
It is even more important when producing nonwoven bonded fabrics either with the wet method or with the aerodynamic process. The following formula is used to express the fineness ratio: fineness ratio 100 Á length of a fibre p fibre titre The fibre length is given in mm and the fibre titre in dtex. 6 dtex fibre with a length of 6 mm is 474, whereas the ratio of a 10 mm fibre is already 791. Thus, higher fineness ratios can lead to problems in processing. However, these problems are often accepted to get the longest possible fibre length and to give especially nonwoven bonded fabrics made with the wet process the desired textile properties.
It is also used for nonwoven bonded fabrics, mostly for the fabrication of filling pieces. Manila hemp (Musa textilis) Manila hemp is one of the mock or skereuchym bast fibres. It is derived by drying and beating the mock stems, which are in fact rolled leaf bast. The fibres are yellow to brown in colour, about 5 mm to 8 mm long and very firm, light and shiny. They have a very high wet strength and rot resistance (Fig. 1-3). Manila hemp is used to produce tea bags and manila paper on adapted machines.