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Neo-Confucianism in History by Peter K. Bol

By Peter K. Bol

The place does Neo-Confucianism—a circulate that from the 12th to the 17th centuries profoundly encouraged the way in which humans understood the realm and spoke back to it—fit into our tale of China’s heritage? This interpretive, from time to time polemical, inquiry into the Neo-Confucian engagement with the literati because the social and political elite, neighborhood society, and the imperial kingdom throughout the track, Yuan, and Ming dynasties is usually a mirrored image at the function of the center interval in China’s background. The booklet argues that as Neo-Confucians placed their philosophy of studying into perform in neighborhood society, they justified a brand new social perfect within which society on the neighborhood point used to be led via the literati with nation acceptance and aid. The later imperial order, during which the country approved neighborhood elite management as essential to its personal lifestyles, survived even after Neo-Confucianism misplaced its carry at the middle of highbrow tradition within the 17th century yet endured because the starting place of neighborhood schooling. it's the competition of this publication that Neo-Confucianism made that order attainable. (20090601)

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Symbols o f the same size represent equal amounts. Not only arc there towns with tax quotas greater than those of their county seats and county seats with quotas greater than those o f their prefectural seats, there are administrative centers with no quotas as all, indicating an absence of significant commercial activity. The area covered is the Liangzhe circuit (modern Zhejiang, southern J iangsu, and east­ S o u rce: X u Song, SOllg G I S for the adm i n istrative h ierarchy o f 1 0 7 7 . ern Anhui provinces).

This was no longer true in 1050. What ideological problems did this pose? The fundamental question was how the state should relate to private wealth. Wang Anshi's New Policies regime aimed to increase the state's role in the economy at the expense of landlords, who controlled rural credit, and great merchants, who controlled the distribution of goods. But this was not an attempt to restore the Tang model of 750: the New Policies encouraged eco­ nomic growth, fostered long-distance trade, and increased the availabil­ ity of money and credit.

For the north, de­ fense of the frontier was the main concern. The northern border was a military zone, a drain on the manpower and economic surplus of the northern plain and the northwest. However, for southerners that bor­ der was far away. 19 The south had exploitable internal frontiers as well, as villagers extended settlements up through river valleys. For the south, in other words, economic development was more important than the defense of the northern frontier. 24 The difference between north and south in the cost of transporta­ tion was also significant.

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