Applied Mathematicsematics

Modelling for fuel optimal control of a variable compression by Ylva Nilsson.

By Ylva Nilsson.

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The pressure wave is the source of the characteristic sound that is called knock. Three main principles governs the occurrence of knock: Chemical equilibrium The chemical equilibrium governs the direction at which a reaction occurs. The composition at chemical equilibrium depends on temperature and pressure (Finn, 1998). Activation energy Even if a gas is not in equilibrium, there may not be any reactions. This can be the case even when the reaction path is exothermic, that is when more energy is released than consumed in the reactions.

5). 7) i=1 where Ncycles is the number of cycles. It can be seen that the knock energy increases with compression ratio and earlier ignition, and that the increase seems exponential—the increase is first hardly noticeable and then changes very rapidly. It is therefore practical to base the knock intensity measure on the logarithm of knock energy. The use of the logarithmic knock energy is not a new idea, although it is rarely seen in the literature compared to the use of knock energy. Hudson et al.

The number of measured cycles is 99 in all the operating points, but due to indistinct knock traces some of the cycles have been excluded. 4: Estimated knock angle RMSE. Only operating points with more than 25 cycles with correctly detected knocks, are shown in the table. 62◦ by both the method and by visual inspection, and |K| the number of cycles in K. 5◦ and 2◦ . This is about the same accuracy as the estimated precision of the visual inspection. ONI has the best performance with RMSE < 1◦ for all the operating points except in OP10.

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