Metal-Catalyzed Reactions in Water

Water is ample in nature, non-toxic, non-flammable and renewable and will as a result be more secure and low in cost for the chemical industry
wherever it's used as a solvent. This e-book presents a entire review of advancements within the use of water as a solvent for metal
catalysis, illustrating the large capability of water in constructing new catalytic ameliorations for fi ne chemical compounds and molecular materials
synthesis. a gaggle of overseas specialists disguise crucial metalcatalyzed reactions in water and produce jointly state-of-the-art results
from contemporary literature with the first-hand wisdom won via the bankruptcy authors. it is a must-have booklet for scientists in academia
and all for the fi eld of catalysis, greener natural artificial tools, water soluble ligands and catalyst layout, in addition to for lecturers and scholars attracted to leading edge and sustainable chemistry.

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014 M), whereas higher and lower concentrations gave lower product yields. 29) [131]. With no surfactant, a 33% yield was obtained and 60% ee. Cationic surfactants, such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) gave little product. Modest yields and enantioselectivities were obtained with anionic surfactants, such as SDS or SLS. Using the zwitterionic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (54) the product was formed in 73% yield and 67% ee. 3 Nonionic Surfactants PEG is a cheap, nontoxic surfactant that is commonly used to enhance solubility of hydrophobic compounds in water.

A PS–PEG-supported NHC ligand coordinated to [Pd(allyl)Cl]2 gave good activity in the Suzuki coupling of aryl iodides and bromides at 50 ◦ C in water [159]. The catalyst was used for five reaction cycles with a slow decrease in yield from 91 to 82%. 3 Synthesis of a cross-linked polymeric support for palladium. 3) [160]. The resulting polymer (68) was coordinated to Pd(OAc)2 to give a material (69) that was active for the Heck coupling of aryl iodides and bromides in 50% aqueous ethanol at 100–140 ◦ C.

33) [143]. 1 Supported Palladium–Ligand Complexes Biphasic catalysis using a water-soluble catalyst allows the catalyst to be easily separated from the organic product. A disadvantage of this methodology is that it is often difficult to separate the catalyst from the inorganic salt by-products formed in these reactions. Although these salts often do not hinder catalyst activity initially, they eventually begin to precipitate from the aqueous catalyst solution, which can hinder catalyst recovery.

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