Microelectronics

Measurement and characterization of magnetic materials by Fausto Fiorillo

By Fausto Fiorillo

Right and effective measurements are important to the certainty of fabrics houses and functions. this can be in particular so for magnetic fabrics for which in final 20 years, our realizing and use have replaced dramatically. New or enhanced fabrics were created and feature reached the marketplace. The smooth amorphous alloys, the Fe-based rare-earth magnets and the large magnetorestrictive and Read more...

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7]. C and N are basically insoluble in Fe and tend to form carbides and nitrides, which act as strong pinning centers for the domain walls. With much higher C content (say around I wt%), graphite precipitates and martensitic domains are additionally formed, and Hc can reach values typical of hard magnets (several 104 A/m). Soft and extra-soft magnetic properties are naturally associated with very low values of the magnetic anisotropy (say with K in the range of a few tens J / m 3 and less). This is the case, for example, of F e - N i alloys, with composition around Fe20-Nis0.

The heterogeneous formation of FeSi and FeBSi ordered phases leads, in fact, to severe material embrittlement. The behaviors of resistivity, anisotropy constant, saturation magnetization and yield stress vs. Si concentration are shown in Fig. 8. 1 Non-oriented Fe-Si alloys Non-oriented (NO) Fe-Si alloys are SMMs with an approximately isotropic grain texture. They cover the medium and high quality range of SMMs for applications in electrical rotating machines, where good isotropic magnetic properties are required.

0 -60 (a) ,i.. . . . , . . . . J,...... . . ,. | . 5 . . i i,/ lO 2;2 z i ............... -40 ~~ E . . . . . , 50 . . . . , . . . . . ,~ 150 . . . 3 Hysteresis loops (a) and specific energy loss per cycle (b) vs. 32 T). The energy loss in (b) is proportional, at a given frequency f, to the area of the corresponding (J,H) hysteresis loop. The loss separation concept formulated in Eq. 2) is illustrated in (b). value. The remainder, We• is called excess loss. The three loss components are associated with different eddy current mechanisms and different space-time scales of the magnetization process.

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