Techniques

Materials and Techniques of 20th Century Music (3rd Edition) by Stefan Kostka

By Stefan Kostka

KEY gain: This ebook presents the main complete analytical method of 20th-Century song to be had from Impressionism to contemporary tendencies. It covers track from the early 1900s via such events as Minimalism and the Neoromanticism of the 1990's, and contains chapters on rhythm, shape, digital and desktop song, and the jobs of probability and selection in Twentieth-Century song. for people attracted to song concept and concord; and an research and historical past of 20th-century song.

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Extra info for Materials and Techniques of 20th Century Music (3rd Edition)

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In Example 3- 3, for instance, the first chord would probably best be analyzed as an A A A incomplete supertonic 11th chord because of th e 2-5-1 bass line, but one could also argue that it is a V ~. And is the second chord an incomplete dominant 9th or an incomplete dominant 13th? The answer depends on whether one hears th e C5 in the melody as a chord tone or as an appoggiatura, and either reading is defensible. The final chord is a tonic triad, the F3 in the tenor being an ornamented suspension .

Microtone means any interval smal1 er than a minor second. While we might assume that microtones are a very recent discovery, they actually were used in the music of ancient Greece and were mathematically de fined by the theorists of that time. 3 Though in most cases the microtones employed have been quarter-tones-that is, an intelval half the size of a minor 2nd-other microtonal interval s have been used as well. A number of methods have been derived for specifying microtones in musical nota- tion.

In his Chamber Concerto (1925), Alban Berg notated quarter-tones by placing a "z" (for "Zwischenton") on the stem. The "z" means the performer must raise the tone if the musical line is ascending chromatically and lower it if it is descending. 2 (1937). Other methods have typically involved variants of the traditional system of acciden- tals. 2 (1968). In his system, an arrow is attached to a fiat, sharp, or natural sign, pointing up or down. The resulting intervals are no larger than quarter-tones and may be smaller, the precise size being determined partly by context and partly by the choice of the performer.

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