Grammar

Mastering English: An Advanced Grammar for Non-native and by Carl Bache

By Carl Bache

This grammar publication deals an easy yet complete syntactic method which allows the coed to investigate any sentence right down to notice point with a specification of either the shape and the functionality of elements in any respect degrees. This analytic process permits the scholar to strategy the various grammatical difficulties in a constant and revealing demeanour.

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Extra resources for Mastering English: An Advanced Grammar for Non-native and Native Speakers

Sample text

Thus, when we speak of'learning the grammar of a language1, it is not simply a question of acquiring new knowledge but also a question of becoming more conscious of something that we know intuitively already. Even to the foreign learner in need of getting 'all the facts of the language' right, the process of learning grammar to some extent involves getting intuitive linguistic and communicative knowledge turned into explicit conscious knowledge. In order to teach (native as well as non-native) speakers of English the grammar of the language, we need to turn the intuitive linguistic and communicative competence that native speakers of English have into an explicit one.

Competence and performance In the preceding sections we have established the fact that the speakers of a language have a high degree of linguistic sensitivity and informal knowledge of their own language. In other words, they have what is often referred to as linguistic competence. Not only are they capable of identifying grammatical units like words and sentences, they also recognize complex syntactic patterns and attach appropriate meanings to them, as witnessed in cases of ambiguity. Most important of all, they know how to put their intuitive knowledge to use whenever they engage in communication.

2. The sentence Grammar is not just the study of words and their morphological structure but also of how words combine to make up larger units, such as sentences. Like words, sentences are notoriously difficult to define rigidly and objectively. And yet we all have an intuitive knowledge of what a sentence is (cf. Bolinger 1975: 156). To appreciate this, we only have to look at a passage where we have left out all the conventional markers of sentence boundaries (such as punctuation and capitalization of initial letters after full stops): (1) Victoria shuddered once again she realized that her father was trying to protect her and she loved him for it and if she admitted to knowing Vince Madigan the next question must inevitably be and what was this American's 16 An introduction to syntax relationship with Mrs Hardcastle and then more questions I don't recognize him she said softly Although this passage is a fairly complicated text with both internal and external dialogue, it is easy to guess at its division into sentences: (2) Victoria shuddered.

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