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Additional info for Logic and Language: Studies Dedicated to Professor Rudolf Carnap on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday
This thesis is not trivial in quite the way in which the parallel thesis for elementary logic was seen to be. It is not indeed experimentally significant as it stands, simply because of the lack, noted earlier, of a separate criterion for usage or meaning. But it does seem reasonable, by the following reasoning. Any acceptable evidence of usage or meaning of words must reside surely either in the observable circumstances under which the words are uttered (in the case of concrete terms referring to observable individuals) or in the affirmation and denial of sentences in which the words occur.
But I suppose that a first rough approximation to an answer can be suggested in the following way: 30 LANGUAGES, CALCULUSES AND LOGIC Even if we cannot creep into other peoples bodies and observe by their senses or think with their brains, we nevertheless actually use various criteria of what is common to the contents of consciousness of different people (including ourselves), and by these criteria we become convinced from our early childhood that we are living in a common world and that human beings to a rather large extent are feeling and thinking similarly when they are in similar situations.
V. QUINE other than democratic toward the truths of set theory. In exposition we may select some of these truths as so-called postulates and deduce others from them, but this is sUbjective discrimination, variable at will, expository and not set-theoretic. We do not change our meaning of 'e' between the page where we show that one particular truth is deducible by elementary logic from another and the page where we show the converse. Given this democratic outlook, finally, the law of sufficient reason leads us to look upon S as including all the sentences which contain only 'e' and the elementary logical particles.