Physiology

Lipoxygenases in Inflammation by Dieter Steinhilber

By Dieter Steinhilber

Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by means of lipoxygenases ends up in various fatty acid metabolites which play very important roles in body structure but in addition in pathophysiology. information collected over the past decade aspect to the truth that lipoxygenase metabolites are concerned about host defence reactions, cardiovascular process and give a contribution to the improvement of inflammatory and allergic ailments, heart problems and melanoma. This PIR quantity summarizes the physiological and pathophysiological services of lipoxygenases.

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Also, no changes in 5-LO mRNA half life were observed. Instead, posttranscriptional 22 O. Werz and O. Ra˚dmark events such as transcript elongation and maturation appeared to mediate the effect of TGFß and 1,25(OH)2D3 [114]. Insight into the mechanism was gained when 1,25 (OH)2D3 and TGFß were observed to upregulate the response for reporter gene plasmids containing the complete 5-LO coding sequence plus the introns J-M [115]. These effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and TGFß were independent of the 5-LO promoter, and two functional response elements for the TGFß effectors Smad3 and 4 were identified in the distal part of the 5-LO gene (exons 10–14, Fig.

Science 331(6014):217–219 16. Newcomer ME, Brash AR (2015) The structural basis for specificity in lipoxygenase catalysis. Protein Sci 24(3):298–309 24 O. Werz and O. Ra˚dmark 17. Eek P, Jarving R, Jarving I, Gilbert NC, Newcomer ME, Samel N (2012) Structure of a calcium-dependent 11R-lipoxygenase suggests a mechanism for Ca2+ regulation. J Biol Chem 287(26):22377–22386 18. Rakonjac Ryge M, Tanabe M, Provost P, Persson B, Chen X, Funk CD et al (2014) A mutation interfering with 5-lipoxygenase domain interaction leads to increased enzyme activity.

6 LTC4S catalyzes the conjugation reaction between GSH and LTA4 to form LTC4 Fig. 7 A schematic representation of the cysteinyl leukotrienes, LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4, is shown respectively. LTE4 is the most stable cysteinyl LT mediator, which easily can be detected in biological fluids such as in urine [25]. LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 are together called cysteinyl-leukotrienes, or cys-LTs (Fig. 7). The bioactions of cysLTs were discovered already in 1938, long before these molecules and corresponding biosynthetic enzymes had been identified [26].

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