Manufacturing

Laser surface modification of alloys for erosion and by C T Kwok

By C T Kwok

Corrosion and erosion procedures frequently take place synergistically to reason severe harm to steel alloys. Laser floor amendment ideas similar to laser floor melting or alloying are being more and more used to regard surfaces to avoid corrosion or fix corroded or broken components.  Laser floor amendment of alloys for corrosion and erosion resistance studies the wealth of  fresh examine on those vital recommendations and their purposes. After an introductory review, half one studies using laser floor melting and different suggestions to enhance the corrosion resistance of stainless and different steels in addition to nickel-titanium and a number of different alloys. half covers using laser floor amendment to avoid varieties of erosion, together with liquid impingement, slurry (solid particle) and electric erosion in addition to laser remanufacturing of broken elements.  

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Nitrogen has also a beneficial effect on the corrosion resistance of austenitic © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2012 30 LSM of alloys for corrosion and erosion resistance stainless steels [104] and is an abundant and inexpensive element, which can easily be alloyed into a range of metallic materials by laser surface melting in a nitrogen atmosphere (laser nitriding [3]). Conde et al. 5 wt% nitrogen can be incorporated in AISI 304 steel by laser surface melting in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere, resulting in a considerable improvement of the corrosion resistance.

Laser processed tool steels present a dendritic structure, consisting of austenite, martensite and, in some cases, extremely fine carbides [7, 8]. These carbides may appear as interdendritic precipitates or thin films or as an interdendritic eutectic [7, 8]. In some conditions a small proportion of d-ferrite may appear too, as previously discussed. By dissolving large Cr-rich carbide particles and non-metallic inclusions responsible for pitting initiation, laser surface melting improves the pitting corrosion resistance of the material, but, owing to the inhomogeneous temperature distribution in the material during the laser treatment, the resulting microstructure is non-uniform, with a potentially negative effect on the corrosion resistance.

3Cr–9N alloy presented a vermicular ferrite d + a microstructure at the bottom of the melt pool, owing to dilution of the coating material by the substrate, and an acicular ferrite microstructure near the surface, where the coating composition was closer to the nominal composition. 7Ni alloy consisted essentially of austenite. 7Ni coating presented a pitting potential of 980 mV. The electrochemical impedance measurements indicated an increase of the passive film stability. Moreover, the coating/ substrate system capacitance was lower than for the bulk alloy, suggesting that the passive film was thicker and, consequently, more stable in the long term than the substrate.

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