By R. C. Crafer (auth.), R. C. Crafer, P. J. Oakley (eds.)
Lasers are actually well-known as sensible possible choices to standard concepts for lots of business functions. After reviewing the elemental thought the e-book presents an perception into gear know-how and applications.
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Additional resources for Laser Processing in Manufacturing
Meyerhofer (1968) has analyzed the case of deep prints in expanded polystyrene. A word of warning is essential at this point. All plastics and other synthetic materials emit poisonous fumes when heated by a laser beam, and great care should be taken to extract the fumes safely from the working area and to dispose of them in an appropriate manner. Courtney and Steen have overcome the dependence of measured beam diameter on laser power and exposure time by measuring the time for the temperature of a laser heat spot to rise to a fixed percentage of its equilibrium value.
18). Heat is conducted away into the bulk of the metal setting up a time-dependent hemispherical temperature profile in the solid. 19), increases, Fig. 13. 5), and Fig. 14. In practice, convection within the weld zone, and other factors, will distort the shape away from hemispherical. This type of weld is known as conduction-limited, and is characterized by a width between Evolution of the weld zone 41 Point source High temperature I + ' + + Medium temperature + ~++-+-++++ Fig. 13 Temperature profile for stationary point source.
At low welding speeds a plasma of metal vapour escaping form the top of the keyhole interacts with the laser beam to lessen the penetration capability of the beam. This is a severe problem only with C0 2 lasers. At the Nd:YAG wavelength, the effect is 100 times less serious. A high-velocity jet of helium is usually directed at the top of the weld to blow away this plasma (Pauley and Russel, 1978). 8 shows in schematic form a plasma control device. Another technique that has been proposed (Banas, 1989) is to pulse the laser beam at a high frequency so that the duration of each pulse 32 Background to laser processing is shorter than the time taken to generate the plasma, thus enabling the beam to penetrate the material efficiently.