By Timothy Shopen
This special three-volume survey brings jointly a group of best students to discover the syntactic and morphological constructions of the world's languages. transparent and broad-ranging, it covers subject matters resembling parts-of-speech, passives, complementation, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, inflectional morphology, stressful, point, temper, and deixis. The members examine the key ways in which those notions are discovered, and supply informative sketches of them at paintings in various languages. quantity 1 covers the parts-of-speech structures, observe order, noun words, clause varieties, speech act differences, passives, and data packaging within the clause.
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Extra resources for Language Typology and Syntactic Description: Volume 1, Clause Structure
One might, however, wish to say that in some languages, such as Nootka and Tagalog, nouns and verbs have enough in common grammatically for there to be some question about whether to regard them as two subclasses of a single part of speech rather than two distinct parts of speech. Since this seems to be essentially a matter of terminology, it need not concern us further. 3 Adjectives While all languages appear to distinguish two open classes, nouns and verbs, only certain languages make a further distinction between these and a third open class, the class of adjectives.
Languages that have no distinct adjective class at all, either open or closed. Such languages can themselves be divided into two groups: languages in which adjectival meanings are expressed primarily by nouns (hereafter, adjectival-noun languages) and languages in which adjectival meanings are expressed primarily by verbs (hereafter, adjectival-verb languages). Parts-of-speech systems 17 In adjectival-noun languages, adjectival meanings seem in general to be expressed by nouns that designate an object (or objects) embodying a specified quality.
Sariε ‘swift’). In Tagalog, which lacks distinctive manner adverbs, the meaning equivalent of such adverbs is regularly expressed by adjectives preceded by the marker nang: nang mabilis (marker ‘quick’) ‘quickly’; nang malakas (marker ‘loud’) ‘loudly’; nang bigla (marker ‘sudden’) ‘suddenly’; etc. There are also languages in which the meaning equivalent of a manner adverb is regularly expressed by an adjective without any special marking. One such language is Trique, in which, 22 Paul Schachter and Timothy Shopen according to Robert Longacre (personal communication), the class of adjectives simply does double duty, modifying verbs as well as nouns.