La Naissance de la science, tome 1 : Mésopotamie - Égypte by André Pichot

By André Pichot

Les sciences de los angeles Mésopotamie, de l'Égypte et de l. a. Grèce présocratique forment un ensemble cohérent, où les connaissances mésopotamiennes et égyptiennes (acquises sans véritable méthode) ont été reprises dans un esprit tout différent par los angeles Grèce. À los angeles Mésopotamie dont les plus grandes réussites scientifiques sont liées aux mystiques mumérique et astrologique, à l'Égypte plus soucieuse d'esprit pratique, succède une technological know-how grecque qui se préoccupe moins d'accumuler les résultats 'positifs' que de trouver des principes généraux et une explication rationnelle (ou tendant vers los angeles rationalité). Cet ensemble cohérent forme los angeles resource principale de l. a. technological know-how occidentale. Celle-ci ne négligera pas d'autres apports (indiens, chinois, arabes...), mais ils se grefferont sur un corpus dont les grands principes et l'orientation générale auront déjà été établis.

La technology, en ses origines, a suivi deux voies distinctes : l. a. voie des objets et l. a. voie de l'esprit scientifique.
La voie des objets consiste en l. a. première différenciation d'études qui se structurent autour d'objets propres (les nombres, les astres, les êtres vivants...), mêlant empirisme, rationalité, magie et mystique.
La voie de l'esprit scientifique est d'abord celle, philosophique, par laquelle l. a. rationalité est élevée au rang de critère de vérité. C'est ensuite los angeles voie par laquelle les disciplines préscientifiques sont reprises et transformées dans cet esprit nouveau, propre à los angeles démocratie grecque.

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The dye is extracted from the stigmas of flowers by boiling them in water. It imparts a bright yellow color to the materials. It can directly dye wool, silk, and cotton. Alum mordant produces an orange yellow known as saffron yellow. 11 Annatto Annatto Bixa orellana is a small tree belonging to the family Bixaceae. The tree is known for the yellow orange dye obtained from its seeds. It is extensively used for the dyeing of cotton, wool, and silk and also used for coloring butter, cheese, and the like.

The cochineal dye produces crimson red color on animal fibers and has good washing and light fastness properties. Its bright red aluminum calcium chelate known as carmine is used as food color. Kermes is another animal origin crimson red dye derived from the insect Kermes licis. This dye has been known since ancient times to color animal fibers but was inferior to cochineal in fastness properties. Lac was also well known in ancient times for coloration of animal fibers. It is obtained from the hardened secretions (stick lac) of the insect Kerria lacca found on the twigs 46 S.

It is obtained as a byproduct during the processing of stick lac for obtaining shellac. Traditionally, it was used for coloration of animal fibers only as it had good affinity for those but it has now also been used by many researchers [44, 48] to color cellulosic fibers such as cotton as it is available in fairly large quantities as a by-product. Recently the kinetics for the dyeing of cotton with this dye has been studied by Chairat et al. [10]. 23 Mineral Origin Some mineral pigments found in nature such as cinnabar, red ocher, yellow ocher, raw sienna, malachite, ultramarine blue, azurite, gypsum, talc, charcoal black, and so on, have been used for coloration purposes.

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