Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual. by Eston R., Reilly T. (eds.)

By Eston R., Reilly T. (eds.)

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This may not appear to be problematic, since it corresponds to a coefficient of variation of less than 2%. However, equation (1) is particularly sensitive to changes in fat-free density. An example will demonstrate this. 6%. 1%. 3). In the former situation the Siri equation gives a 43% underestimate, in the latter a 168% overestimate. ml–1 will have their per cent fat underestimated by the Siri equation. This can lead to anomalous values that are lower than the generally accepted lower limit for essential fat of about 3–4%.

Nitrogen is an inert gas; hence the quantity of N2 inhaled and exhaled as part of air does not change in response to metabolic processes. Therefore the quantity of N2 in the lungs after maximum exhalation is representative of the residual volume. This remaining N2 is diluted by a known quantity of pure oxygen during several breaths of the closed circuit gas. Analysis of the resulting gas mixture from the closed circuit system yields the dilution factor of N2 and since N2 is present in a fixed proportion in air, the residual volume can be calculated.

Despite the two general patterns of fat distribution, android (central predominance) and gynoid (gluteofemoral predominanc), fat patterns are quite individual. The final assumption is that a limited number of subcutaneous sites are representative of fat deposited non-subcutaneously (omentum, viscera, bone marrow and interstices). While there is some evidence that internal fat increases with subcutaneous fat, this relationship is affected by many variables, particularly age. The procedure for generating per cent fat equations for level III methods can be illustrated by examining the classic approach of Durnin and Womersley (1974).

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