By Silvia Luraghi
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Extra info for Key Terms in Syntax and Syntactic Theory
I persuade him to leave b. I try to leave Basic linguistic items are signs. Signs are divided into two subtypes, words and phrases; they are described as bundles of features, which determine phonological (PHON), syntactic and semantic (SYNSEM) constraints. Feature structures of signs are represented as attribute value matrices (AVMs). As an example of what a lexical entry looks like in HPSG consider the verb put in Figure 7. In the top left corner a label specifies this sign as a word (rather than a phrase).
The representation of a sentence in RRG is as follows: (1) the man saw the woman in the mountains Figure 15 shows the layered structure of a clause in RRG and Figure 16 the layered structure of a phrase in RRG. Standard Transformational Generative Theory 41 SENTENCE | CLAUSE | CORE <------------------------ PERIPHERY | NUC NP NP | PRED | V PP | The man saw the woman in the mountains Figure 15 The layered structure of a clause in RRG (adapted from Van Valin and LaPolla 1997: 33) PP | CORE NUC | PRED | P | In ARG NP the mountains Figure 16 The layered structure of a phrase in RRG Constituents also have a layered structure.
Case Theory is also responsible for the distribution of NPs in sentences. In fact, in this model each NP must be assigned abstract Case, to conform to the Case Filter. Different categories assign Case: Agreement assigns Nominative Case, a verb assigns Accusative Case, and a preposition assigns Accusative or Oblique Case. With the exception of Genitive, Case is assigned under government. An important function of Case is to force movement. For example, in passive, the NP object moves to subject position to get nominative Case.