Microelectronics

# Introduction to fiber optics by John Crisp

By John Crisp

Creation to Fiber Optics is easily validated as an introductory textual content for engineers, managers and scholars. It meets the desires of platforms designers, deploy engineers, digital engineers and a person else seeking to achieve a operating wisdom of fiber optics with at the least maths. assessment questions are incorporated within the textual content to allow the reader to examine their figuring out as they paintings during the book.The re-creation of this winning publication is now absolutely modern with the recent criteria, most recent technological advancements and contains a new bankruptcy on specifying optical components.Whether you're looking for a whole self-study direction in fiber optics, a concise reference textual content to dip into, or a readable advent to this fast paced know-how, this e-book has the answer. * a pragmatic, no-nonsense consultant to fiber optics* updated insurance that minimises arithmetic* New fabric on specifying optical parts

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The loss is expressed in decibels per kilometer and is written as dBkm–1. For silica glass fibers we are looking at values around 3 dBkm–1 for the fibers used for medium range transmissions. This corresponds to about half the power being last for each kilometer of travel. 3 dBkm–1 giving losses of only 7% per kilometer. If a kilometer has a loss of 3 dB, then 2 km will have a total loss of 2 ϫ 3 = 6 dB. It is, after all, just the same as having two attenuators connected in series. So, to obtain the total loss of a fiber, we simply multiply the loss specification in dBkm1 by the length of the fiber (measured in kilometers of course).

This accounts for the blue sky and the red of the sunset. The high frequency end of the visible spectrum is the blue light and this is scattered more than the red light when sunlight hits the atmosphere. The sky is only actually illuminated by the scattered light. So when we look up, we see the blue scattered light, and the sky appears blue. The moon has no atmosphere, no scattering, and hence a black sky. At sunset, we look towards the sun and see the less scattered light which is closer to the sun.

We can write: ᭟ ᭟ ᭟ 102 = 100, or say 10 squared is equal to 100, or even 10 to the power of 2 is 100. But how would we describe the number 2 in this situation? It is called the logarithm, or log of 100. It is the number to which 10 must be raised to equal 100. 39 ch05 3/5/01 11:52 Page 40 Introduction to Fiber Optics As 102 = 100 and the log of 100 is 2, and 103 = 1000 and the log of 1000 is 3, it follows that the log of any number between 100 and 1000 must be between 2 and 3. We cannot work them out for ourselves so we must use a calculator.