Civics Citizenship

International Migration into Europe: From Subjects to by Gabriella Lazaridis

By Gabriella Lazaridis

This e-book goals to decipher the complicated internet of structural, institutional and cultural contradictions which form the inclusion-exclusion dialectic and the multifaceted grid during which the 'us' turns into the 'other' and the 'other' turns into the 'us'. It appears at how foreign migrants in Europe remodel from criminal topics into criminal abjects.

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2 Documented Migrants: Skilled Migration – the injects The ‘sucking sound’: brain drain, strain, gain, loss or exchange, circulation? In the 1990s, the then US presidential candidate Ross Perot talked about the ‘sucking sound’ made as American jobs went south of the border. Nowadays, there is a significant ‘sucking sound’ in the globalised world, made by migrants leaving developing countries and heading to the developed world; new migrants often bring skills with them. The scale is staggering. According to Sriskandarajah (2005), nearly one in ten tertiary-educated adults born in the developing world and between one third and one half of the developing world’s science and technology personnel now live in the developed world.

Restrictive emigration clearance rules, such as those found in Cuba (Human Rights Watch 2012), can hinder or prevent skilled potential migrants from leaving the country in the first place. However, this approach is problematic from a human rights perspective, and may be in breach of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) provisions on freedom of movement. Another approach is to seek financial reparations, either by taxing expatriate migrants directly (brain drain tax), as practiced by Eritrea, or seeking it directly from the governments of receiving countries.

In this chapter, the term ‘highly skilled’ is used to refer to someone who has some college, university or post-secondary education. What is considered ‘highly skilled’ may differ from context to context, given the diversity of skill needs and resources available to economies at different stages of development. The definition of highly skilled is sometimes further refined to refer only to science and technology workers or managers, including intra-corporate transferees. Many developing 27 28 International Migration into Europe countries also have few craftsmen or technically trained persons, so they can ill-afford to lose those they have.

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