Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics by Horst Zimmermann

By Horst Zimmermann

Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics synthesizes subject matters from optoelectronics and microelectronics. The booklet concentrates on silicon because the significant base of contemporary semiconductor units and circuits. ranging from the fundamentals of optical emission and absorption, in addition to from the gadget physics of photodetectors, the features of the combination of photodetectors in glossy bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS applied sciences are mentioned. specific descriptions of fabrication applied sciences and purposes of optoelectronic built-in circuits are incorporated. The booklet, in addition, encompasses a evaluate of the latest country of analysis on eagerly expected silicon mild emitters. with a view to conceal the subjects comprehensively, additionally incorporated are built-in waveguides, gratings, and optoelectronic energy units. various difficult illustrations facilitate and increase comprehension. This prolonged variation should be of worth to engineers, physicists, and scientists in and at universities. The publication is usually suggested to graduate scholars specializing on microelectronics or optoelectronics.

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LlIl CMOS process and measured with integrated 500 n gate polysilicon resistors and a picoprobe for a wavelength of 638 nm 46 3. Technologies and Integrated Photodetectors of approximately 90 MHz was measured for this double photodiode with a picoprobe. In Fig. 15 the frequency response of a P+N photodiode with the same size and fabricated on the same wafer as the double photodiode is shown for comparison. The -3dB frequency of the P+N photodiode is only 32 MHz and the photocurrent already begins to decrease at a frequency of 2 MHz due to slow diffusion of photogenerated carriers from a depth of more than approximately 2 Illli.

The recombination of photogenerated carriers in region 1 and 2 (see Fig. 7), however, reduces the internal quantum effieiency. 27). This reduces the internal quantum effieiency for short wavelengths considerably, because a large portion of the light is absorbed in region 1. Light with long wavelengths penetrates deep into silicon and the recombination of photogenerated carriers in region 2 can reduce the internal quantum efficiency. The recombination of photogenerated carriers in region 1 is not very important for long wavelengths due to the large penetration depth and the small portion of photogenerated carriers in region 1.

L depends on the doping concentration. The doping concentration and the bias voltage applied to the photodiode determine the distribution of the electric field. L and E in areal photodetector depend on the space coordinates. Numerical process and device simulations, in general, are necessary in order to compute the transient response of photodetectors. When we choose the ideal PIN photodiode with a constant electric field for instance (see Fig. 18) Electrons - Holes ..... I----l 1000 10000 100000 1e+06 100 Electric field 01lcm) Fig.

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