Microelectronics

Integrated Microfabricated Biodevices by Andras Guttman, Michael J. Heller

By Andras Guttman, Michael J. Heller

This ebook discusses the recent new release of built-in microfabricated units, together with DNA chips, Lab-on-a-Chip, microcapillary electrophoresis structures, biosensors, and microanalytical platforms. It lines their improvement with the validated and evolving applied sciences corresponding to microlithography, micromachining, microelectromechanical structures, microfluids, and nanotechnology.

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3 Chip Length Scales Microfluidic devices have channel widths and depths in the 10- to 100µm range. In channels larger than this, mixing becomes problematic. Lab-on-a-Chip Devices 45 In channels smaller than this, the detection step becomes difficult. A 1-mm channel length has about 1 nL of volume, in a 10 ϫ 100 µm channel. Some assays require concentrations of biological molecules in the 1-nM range. This is equivalent to one femtomole of material or only 10,000 molecules in this 1 mm of channel length.

As a result of the fact that IR light can selectively excite a vibrational band of water (and not the substrate in which it is contained), IR heating limits concerns of thermal load to only the volume of the PCR mixture to be temperature cycled. Logic dictates that by reducing the volume of water, the thermal load is reduced and, hence, faster IR-mediated thermocycling can be carried out. Hu¨hmer and Landers [47] have shown that nanoliter volumes of PCR mixture can be thermocycled in a capillary with average cycle times on the order of 3 sec.

A rule of thumb for mixing time is: t ϭ x 2 /2D. 005 cm) wide is about 4 sec. At flow rates of 1 mm/sec this requires a mixing channel length of 4 mm which is easily designed into the fluid circuit. Of course, for larger molecules such as proteins, the time for diffusional mixing is much longer. Luckily, one does not need all reactants to be uniform across the channel to yield quantitative data. , the rate is linearly proportional to the concentration of each reactant). For these reactions, only one of the reagents needs to be uniform across the channel.

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