Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems for Manufacturing: First by William A. Gruver, Dilip B. Kotak, Edwin H. van Leeuwen,

By William A. Gruver, Dilip B. Kotak, Edwin H. van Leeuwen, Douglas Norrie (auth.), Vladimír Mařík, Duncan McFarlane, Paul Valckenaers (eds.)

The expanding complexity of producing platforms in addition to the general calls for for versatile and fault-tolerant keep an eye on of creation tactics stimulates (among many others) key rising applied sciences which are already making a huge step forward within the box of clever production, regulate, and diagnostics. those paradigms are: • the holonic strategy in accordance with the event-driven keep an eye on process, often aimed toward modular keep an eye on platforms which are without delay bodily associated with the producing gear, and • the multi-agent method constructed within the sector of dispensed info processing. The learn groups operating in either those fields are imminent the matter of clever production from diversified viewpoints and, until eventually lately, to a definite quantity, in an self reliant approach. we will even though become aware of particularly a transparent convergence of those fields within the previous couple of years: the groups have began to cooperate, becoming a member of efforts to unravel the painful difficulties fascinated by reaching potent commercial perform. we will see convergence within the terminology, criteria and techniques being applied.

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A second approach that is currently being investigated is to use function block adapters (FBA) as proposed by Heverhagen and Tracht [11]. Currently, their approach is intended to provide an interface between Real-time Unified Modeling Language (RT-UML) capsules and IEC 61131-3 function blocks. , the deliberative layer) while IEC 61131-3 function blocks would provide the interface on the control function side. The advantage of this approach is that, function block adapters in combination with Heverhagen and Tracht’s FBA language, provide a means to unambiguously express the interface mapping.

The development of the virtual resource for the industrial robot was harder than in the previous case, mainly because of the manipulation of the ActiveX component [18]. Since the ActiveX components are adequate for Windows environments, it was necessary to convert the ActiveX component to a java package, using for this purpose the Bridge2Java tool [13]. The start service for the industrial robot is summarised bellow. public int start(String progName){ ... s4Start(prgID,procedure,nOfCycle,runMode); } catch(IOException ioe){returnCode=determineErrorType();} return (returnCode); } After the declaration of variables, three commands are executed: s4Run that turns on the robot motors, the s4ProgramLoad that loads a specified program 44 P.

In the next section we describe a general model for a transformation interface for Holonic Control Devices. The interface agents within this model are intended to address the basic characteristics of interface agents described above and provide these capabilities in a real-time environment. 3 The Transformation Interface Although there has been a considerable amount of work on holonic and agent-based approaches to the upper (planning and scheduling) level of control [19] very little work has been done on applying these techniques to the lower, real-time control level.

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