Handbook of Vacuum Arc Science and Technology. Fundamentals by Raymond L. Boxman

By Raymond L. Boxman

Content material:

, Pages vii-viii, James M. Lafferty

, Pages ix-xv, Raymond L. Boxman

, Pages xvii-xviii
1 - electric Discharges and Plasmas —A short Tutorial

, Pages 3-27, Raymond L. Boxman
2 - Arc Ignition

, Pages 28-72, George A. Farrall
- Phenomenology

, Pages 73-151, Burkhard Jüttner, Victor F. Puchkarev
- Theories of Cathode Spots

, Pages 151-208, Erhard Hantzsche
Theoretical Modeling of Cathode Spot Phenomena

, Pages 208-256, Isak Beilis
Chapter Summary

, Pages 256-281, Victor F. Puchkarev
4 - The Interelectrode Plasma

, Pages 282-307, Samuel Goldsmith
5 - Anode Phenomena

, Pages 308-364, H. Craig Miller
Vacuum Arc Desposition

, Pages 367-396, Philip J. Martin
Arc resource designs

, Pages 396-397, Steven Falabella, Dmitri A. Karpov
Continuous cathodic Arc sources

, Pages 397-423, Steven Falabella, Dmitri A. Karpov
Distributed Arc sources

, Pages 423-444, Vladimir I. Gorokhovsky, Vladimir P. Polistchook, Ivan M. Yartsev, Joseph W. Glaser
Pulsed Arc sources

, Pages 444-453, Ian Brown
Rigid-rotor types of plasma flow

, Pages 454-466, David B. Boercker, David M. Sanders, Steven Falabella
Film growth

, Pages 467-493, Philip J. Martin, David R. Mckenzie
Applications of Arc-deposited coatings

, Pages 493-519, Jörg Vetter, Anthony J. Perry
Emerging purposes and new possibilities with PVD Arc sources

, Pages 519-551, Subbiah Ramalingam
7 - Vacuum Arc steel Processing

, Pages 552-589, Gerhard Brückmann, Harald Scholz
8 - Vacuum Switching of excessive present and excessive Voltage at energy Frequencies

, Pages 590-624, Allan Greenwood
9 - Pulsed strength Applications

, Pages 625-699, Roger Dougal, Ian G. Brown, Sture ok. Händel
Nomenclature—by Subject

, Pages 700-704

, Pages 705-708

, Pages 709-736
About the Contributors

, Pages 737-742

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Extra info for Handbook of Vacuum Arc Science and Technology. Fundamentals and Applications

Example text

It was believed that the surface was hardened by the discharges. Jiittner l19] has found a similar effect for both copper and molybdenum by surface conditioning. Vacuum Arc Ignition 37 INSULATOR ENHANCED EMISSION The interpretation of Fowler-Nordheim plots based upon the assumption of metallic protrusion emission is not universally accepted. One of the reasons for this is the incredibly high values of field enhancement factor, p, which sometimes result from the slope analysis. In extreme cases, p can have values in the thousands.

It seemed very clear that the poor dielectric performance was caused by the presence of glass particles. Insulating particles bonded to the surface can also become preferred sites for vacuum breakdown. In one series of experiments, Farrall and coworkers intentionally embedded alumina particles in copper electrodes and then subjected these surfaces to high voltage. [49) Examination of these surfaces after breakdown showed that most ofthe discharges occurred at the surface boundary between the insulators and copper.

The coating may be chosen to have low secondary electron yield or may improve dielectric uniformity, decrease surface resistance, reduce the effects of gas desorption, and provide controlled de-trapping. 48 Vacuum Arc Science and Technology A study of alumina ceramics in the form of cylinders coated with various dopants consisting of combinations of Cr, Mn, and Ti was carried out by Miller and Fumo. 4% produced an insulator with 25% to 40% improvement over plain alumina ceramics. Higher doping levels produced only a modest gain over alumina and tended to suffer irreversible damage during breakdown.

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