By Krishna Seshan
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Additional resources for Handbook of Thin Film Deposition Techniques
Now microprocessors have closed the technology gap. DRAM focus is on minimization of area occupied by memory cells. To increase cell density the cell size must be as small as possible. In microprocessors, performance is dominated by the length of the transistor gate and by the number of interconnect layers. 1 Performance of Packaged Chips—Trends Performance increase follows the decrease in cell size: the transistor drives increase and switching times decrease because the charge being switched decreases.
It is for these reasons that low-pressure CVD is widely used in the highly cost-competitive semiconductor industry for depositing films of insulators, amorphous and polycrystalline silicon, refractory metals, and silicides. Epitaxial growth of silicon at reduced pressure minimizes autodoping (contamination of the substrate by its dopant), a major problem in atmospheric-pressure epitaxy. Vapor-Phase Epitaxy. Vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE)– and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)– are used for growing epitaxial films of compound semiconductors in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices.
The prototype equipment for the development of new deposition processes can encompass a wide variety of designs and constructional details. Only the future outlook for the requirements and applications of such equipment is discussed in the following chapters in this book. The deposition equipment for the research and development of new device structures has to meet, in general, quite different requirements than the equipment used in the manufacturing of devices on a large scale.