By Laura Brugé, Anna Cardinaletti, Giuliana Giusti, Nicola Munaro, Cecilia Poletto
During the last 20 years, useful heads were one of many privileged gadgets of analysis in generative linguistics. although, inside this line of inquiry, substitute ways have constructed: whereas the cartographic venture considers crosslinguistic facts as the most important for a whole mapping of practical heads in common grammar, minimalist money owed are inclined to give some thought to structural economic system as actually related to a discount within the variety of to be had heads. during this quantity, essentially the most influential linguists who've participated during this long-lasting debate provide their contemporary paintings briefly, self-contained case stories. The contributions hide all of the major layers of lately studied syntactic constitution, together with such significant components of empirical learn as grammaticalization and language switch, commonplace and non-standard types, interface matters, and morphosyntax. Functional Heads makes an attempt to map points of syntactic constitution in line with the cartographic method, and in doing so demonstrates that the variations among cartography and minimalism are maybe extra superficial than substantial.
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Extra resources for Functional Heads: The Cartography of Syntactic Structures, Volume 7
First, there is a lexical correspondence between pa (< Lat. post) and Bavarian nachher (“after”). Secondly, pa has – according to Hack (2009) – become obligatory in wh-questions in Badiot, Marèo and in Gherdëina, with a concomitant loss of its original meaning. She ascribes this to a process of grammaticalization. e. also in disjunctive questions. I do not know if there are any dialects of Bavarian with obligatory –n in all questions. F R O M M O DA L PA R T I C L E T O I N T E R R O G AT I V E M A R K E R [ 25 ] (34) LOCALISTIC > TEMPORAL > LOGICAL > ILLOCUTIVE / DISCOURSE FUNCTIONAL The Bavarian data discussed in section 3 show that this grammaticalization path is prolonged due to further reduction of denn toward a pure marker of root wh-questions.
15. In his description of the German MP wohl (‘well’) Zimmermann (2004; 2008) proposed that the MP moves to the left periphery at LF. See also a previous version of the current chapter that was temporarily available on LingBuzz. [ 20 ] On the Cartography of Functional Structure b. Wohin glaubst du, wohin dass der Hans denn wohin gefahren ist? c. Wohin glaubst du, wohin dass Paula meint, wohin dass der Hans where believe you that Paula thinks that the Hans gefahren ist? ’ d. Wohin glaubst du, wohin dass Paula denn meint, wohin dass der Hans wohin gefahren ist?
B. Hat der Hans denn der Hans den Hund gefüttert? c. Hat der Hans den Hund denn der Hans den Hund gefüttert? 11 NPs and DPs which do not qualify as topics – rhematic indeﬁnites and quantiﬁers – are excluded from the topic ﬁeld. 9. Cf. Bavarian (i) Er hod [NegP koa Schneid he had no courage ‘ He was not courageous’ [Neg’ ned koa Schneid not g’habt]] had 10. Grosz (2005) argues that German MPs must be in a spec-position in order to allow the verb to move via the empty head position. His proposal follows one of Cinque’s (1999) motivations to suggest such an architecture for adverbs.