Grammar

Functional Descriptions: Theory in Practice by Ruqaiya Hasan †, Carmel Cloran, David G. Butt

By Ruqaiya Hasan †, Carmel Cloran, David G. Butt

This quantity makes a speciality of the relation among idea and outline by way of analyzing facets of transitivity in several languages. Transitivity — or case grammar, to exploit the preferred time period — has continuously occupied a centre-stage place in linguistics, no longer least due to its supposedly privileged relation to states of affairs within the genuine international. utilizing a systemic practical point of view, the 10 papers during this quantity contribute to this scholarship by means of concentrating on the transitivity styles in language because the expression of the experiential metafunction. via a learn of alternative languages — English, Dutch, German, Finnish, chinese language and Pitjantjatjara — the individuals supply practical descriptions of a number of the different types of method, their contributors and situations, together with phenomena reminiscent of di-transitivity, causativity, the get-passive, and so on. With the relation among theories and outlines working during the ten chapters of this quantity as occasionally an overt and infrequently a covert topic, the chapters element to the character of the linguistic truth that's associated ineluctably at the one hand to the character of the speculation and at the different to the audio system’ event of the realm during which they live.
The majority of papers incorporated within the quantity derive from the nineteenth foreign Systemic sensible Congress at Macquarie University.

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We can study ethnographically the patterns of this evaluation, and their place in the social process; but that is a distinct phenomenal domain. Grammatics, in fact, has no domain until it defines one for itself (or until one is defined for it within general linguistics — exactly at what point the term grammatics takes over from linguistics is immaterial). And it is this that makes the boundary hard to draw. Since both the grammar and the gram­ matics are made of language, then if, in addition, each has to be used to define the other, it is not surprising if they get confused.

The problem seems to arise from something like the following. All systematic knowledge takes the form of "language about" some phenomenon; but whereas the natural sciences are language about nature, and the social sciences are language about society, linguistics is language about language — "language turned back on itself', in Firth's often quoted formulation. So, leaving aside the moral indignation some people seem to feel, as if linguistics was a form of intellectual incest, there is a real problem involved in drawing the boundary: where does language end and linguistics begin?

I would be inclined to characterise grammar in the first instance as the part of language where the work is done. Language is powered by grammatical energy, so to speak. Let me approach the definition of grammar, however, from a somewhat different angle. I shall assume here, as a general theoretical foundation, the account of language given by Lemke (1993) in his Discourse, dynamics, and social change. Lemke characterises human communities as eco-social sys­ tems which persist in time through ongoing exchange with their environment; and the same holds true of each of their many sub-systems.

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