By John Hewson
Within the old improvement of many languages of the IE phylum the lack of inflectional morphology ended in the advance of a configurational syntax, the place syntactic place marked syntactic position. the 1st of those configurations used to be the adposition (preposition or postposition), which built out of the uninflected particle/preverbs within the older varieties of IE, via forming fastened words with nominal parts, a development later within the improvement of a configurational NP (article + nominal) and vice president (auxiliary + verbal). The authors persist with this evolution via virtually 4 thousand years of documentation in all twelve language households of the Indo-European phylum, noting the resemblances among the constitution of the unique IE case approach and the systemic oppositions to be present in the units of adpositions that changed it.
Quite except its theoretical analyses and recommendations which in themselves quantity to a brand new examine many conventional difficulties, this learn has a price within the accumulated shop of data on situations, and on adpositions and their utilization. there's additionally a substantial shop of etymological info that's appropriate to the outline of the systemic improvement.
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Extra resources for From Case to Adposition: The development of configurational syntax in Indo-European languages
These two processes are necessarily sequential, so that the act of labelling or naming precedes the act of referring or retrieving, as in (38). NAMING REFERRING Unnamed re lere n I > LEXEME LEXEME • Named reierent In languages with articles the act of naming requires an indefinite article, and the act of referring (of using the lexeme so established), requires a definite article. In languages without articles, other definers, or word order, will be used to mark definite and indefinite reference.
3 below. Meanwhile, the evidence of Classical Greek indicates that for most prepositions the option was still open; that the preposition could be dependent upon its noun, or the noun dependent upon its preposition, the preposing of the latter indicating only the that the two elements were to be treated as a single adverbial unit. Consequently some prepositions of Ancient Greek could "govern" three different cases, even those which clashed with the meaning of the preposition; in such cases the indications are that the oblique case was the head of the prepositional phrase, as outlined in (28).
From under, to near, along by, out from, in under, etc). (28) a. παρά ν ηώ ν αψ άπονο στη σε ι ν (FROM) para nēon àps apo-nostēsein (genitive) beside ship+GEN/PL back írom=return-home+EUT/lNF "to return home, back from beside the ships" b. παρά 111. 114-115] Πριάμοιο θΰρησιν (AT) para Priámoio thúrēysin (dative) beside Priam+GEN/SG gates+FEM/DAT/PL "at Priam's gates" c. 51 ] 12 FROM CASE TO ADPOSITION IN IE LANGUAGES It is difficult to see how a single preposition meaning "beside, alongside" could possibly be used to represent (a) motion away from, (b) static location, and (c) motion towards.