By Andre N. Luiten (auth.), Dr. Andre N. Luiten (eds.)
Optical frequency dimension is a very hard box of experimental physics that's almost immediately present process a renaissance of curiosity and endeavour. the inducement for this rebirth comes from various fronts: the very functional wishes of contemporary high-throughput optical communique platforms, and from the extra esoteric requisites of high-resolution laser spectroscopy. The inherent problem of the sector arises from the will for accuracy within the dimension. This requirement calls for that the optical dimension be made on the subject of the the world over agreed defintion of frequency: a microwave transition within the cesium atom. long ago, a small variety of laboratories had succeeded in supplying this bridge among the microwave and optical domain names in a very good feat of ingenuity, overcoming the bounds of know-how. a way more based and easy technique has now develop into attainable utilizing advancements in nonlinear optics and femtosecond mode-locked lasers. software of this contemporary strategy may still result in a brand new period during which optical frequency measurements develop into ordinary. this article is the 1st to debate, intimately, the improvement of conventional and second-generation frequency chains including their permitting expertise. stories written by way of one of the most skilled researchers of their respective fields tackle the expertise of frequency metrology, together with low-noise and high-stability microwave and optical frequency criteria, conventional and second-generation optical frequency size and synthesis concepts, and optical frequency comb turbines. this article should still turn out precious to researchers simply coming into the sphere of optical frequency metrology or both good to the skilled practitioner.
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Additional resources for Frequency Measurement and Control: Advanced Techniques and Future Trends
Freq. Control 43, 936–941 (1996) 11, 23 4. E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, R. A. Woode: Microwave interferometry: Application to precision measurements and noise reduction techniques. IEEE Trans. Utrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Control 45, 1526–1536 (1998) 11, 20 5. E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, R. A. Woode: Applications of interferometric signal processing to phase noise reduction in microwave oscillators. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 1537–1545 (1998) 11, 17, 19, 20, 23, 28 6. M. E. Tobar: Electric noise measurements.
The predicted noise budget of such a microwave oscillator is shown in Fig. 13. Curve 1 in Fig. 13 corresponds to the amplitude noise of a free-running oscillator. Curve 2 shows the noise ﬂoor, which would be possible if the sensor of the AM noise-reduction system was noiseless. Curve 3 represents the noise ﬂoor of the interferometric amplitude discriminator. The spectral density of overall amplitude ﬂuctuations of the oscillator is given by curve 4. It varies as 1/f 2 in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz, and AM noise levels as low as −160 dBc/Hz appear to be possible at f = 1 kHz.
J. K. A. Everard, M. A. Page-Jones: Transposed gain microwave oscillators with low residual ﬂicker noise. IEEE Int. Freq. Control Symp. Proc. 49, 374– 377 (1995) 15 25. M. M. Driscoll, R. W. Weinert: Spectral performance of sapphire dielectric resonator controlled oscillators operating in the 80 K to 275 K temperature range. IEEE Int. Freq. Control Symp. Proc. 49, 401–412 (1995) 15 26. X. S. Yao, L. Maleki: Converting light into spectrally pure microwave oscillation. Opt. Lett. 21, 483–485 (1996) 16 27.