By Richard Brummer
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Additional info for FLAC and numerical modeling in geomechanics : proceedings of the third International FLAC Symposium, 21-24 October 2003, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
1 INTRODUCTION The behavior of a tunnel is greatly influenced by the characteristics of the soils and the tunneling procedure. They will give a strong influence to the initial and long term deformations on the vicinity of a tunnel and on the ground surface, particularly when the ground traversed by tunnels has poor geotechnical characteristics: little or no cohesion, medium-high deformability and high viscosity. In this area, more considerations should be taken because deformations of the soil on the ground surface and on the vicinity of a tunnel show generally a strong evolution with time.
This threshold corresponds to the crack initiation under unconfined conditions. 1. The first phase of softening corresponds to a deterioration of the rock’s cementation illustrated by a progressive disappearance of the cohesion at the macroscopic scale. This first phase is associated with an increasing of the dilatancy. 2. The second phase corresponds to the shear of an induced fracture. It’ s associated with a decreasing of the dilatancy at the macroscopic scale. 3. Finally, the last domain corresponds to a purely frictional behavior, which defines the residual strength.
The Double-Yield constitutive model in FLAC was considered, and conditions for localization related to the volumetric cap were identified using the approach of Issen & Rudnicki (2000). It was found that softening of the cap, which can correspond to grain collapse or breakage of cemented grains, was a necessary condition for the occurrence of compaction band. But the condition is not sufficient; in addition, the hardening modulus (positive for softening of the cap) must exceed a critical value, which is a function of material bulk and shear moduli.