By Robert P. Sutton
The problems and controversies surrounding the construction of our federal republic—and the rights of the federal government—have reverberated via many watershed occasions within the two hundred+ years of yank historical past. This booklet may help scholars to discuss these matters as they performed out in 8 crises from 1787 to the start of the twenty first century. specialist remark and fifty four fundamental records modern to the time have been rigorously chosen to symbolize a number of perspectives on each one factor. occasions variety from the construction of the federal republic to the continued controversy over women's rights.Primary records comprise presidential letters and speeches, newspaper opinion items, first-person debts and letters, splendid courtroom judgements, congressional debates, statutes, resolutions, and political celebration systems. a story advent to the problem of federalism over American historical past can assist scholars contextualize the occasions in context. A chronology and bibliography of books and sites will help the scholar researcher.
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Kennedy ordered federal marshals to escort Meredith to a campus dormitory. He then went on national television to condemn Barnett’s open defiance of federal authority and announced that the University of Mississippi had been integrated and asked its students to follow the law. Instead, a mob invaded Ole Miss and went on a rampage of shooting and rock throwing. In 1963 Americans watched Sheriff “Bull” Connor of Birmingham, Alabama, turn dogs, fire hoses, and cattle prods on a peaceful civil rights demonstration of blacks and whites.
As a last, desperate effort to enforce federal law in the South, Congress enacted the Ku Klux Klan Acts, called the Force Acts, between 1870 and 1875, and the Civil Rights Act of 1875. But when it became obvious that the South would never accept Congress’s version of Reconstruction, northern voters and businessmen became impatient with the struggle. Congress signaled a retreat in the Amnesty Act of 1872 and allowed southern whites to “redeem” their state governments. The Supreme Court, too, withdrew federal protection from the freed slave.
In this ruling it unanimously ordered a more aggressive desegregation effort and stated that only the Court, not state legislatures, could interpret the Constitution. Southerners continued to defy the law. Prince Edward County, Virginia, went to the extreme of closing all of its schools for six years and enrolling white students in segregated “private” academies. Television dramatized and heightened the growing conflict between federal power and states’ rights. It showed Alabama governor George C.