By Gavin Boyd, Alan M. Rugman, Pier Carlo Padoan
9 contributions from foreign teachers and practitioners speak about the industrial and monetary linkage among Europe and North the US. additionally they define the exchange and funding ideas governing this interplay. the amount opens with an research of the position of monetary markets in financial functionality within the ecu and the U.S.. different subject matters comprise (for instance) the results of the actions of establishment organizations for antitrust coverage, and the aptitude effect of a US-Europe unfastened exchange contract. The papers have been initially provided at a September 2003 convention held in Halifax, Nova Scotia at Saint Mary's collage
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Additional info for European-American Trade and Financial Alliances
It has been stressed that collaboration allows increasing the number of agents able to benefit from knowledge, and that it provides expanding learning opportunities. , 2000). Collaborations can be seen as a positive sum game and the partners acquire more advantages than disadvantages, although the net gains are not always equally distributed among them (see Gambardella and Malerba, 1999, esp. p II). However different propensities towards knowledge collaboration characterize different economies.
2 Note: Row percentages may add to more than 100 because articles are counted in each contributing country and some may have authors in three or more countries. With regard to the European Union, internationally co-authored articles also include those among member countries. ) Source: National Science Foundation (2000). 6 44 European–American trade and financial alliances regression line shows an inverse relationship between the two variables since, as expected, the propensity to collaborate is inversely related to the size of a country.
1999). 7. Estimation results indicate that banks’ contribution to growth is from three to seven times greater than that of markets. 8. ’ 9. Their analysis covers 41 countries and 36 sectors and the period 1980–90. 10. Defined as the ratio (capital expenditures–cash flow)/capital expenditures. 11. This covers both the southern enlargement, involving Spain, Portugal and Greece, and the eastern enlargement, involving Central and Eastern European countries. 12. It has been argued that, within a single capital market, an equilibrium characterized by several sub-markets with different degrees of liquidity might originate (Pagano, 1989).