Physiology

Essentials of Medical Physiology by K., Ph.D. Sembulingam, Prema, Ph.D. Sembulingam

By K., Ph.D. Sembulingam, Prema, Ph.D. Sembulingam

Ebook annotation now not on hand for this title...Title: .Essentials of scientific Physiology..Author: .Sembulingam, K., Ph.D./ Sembulingam, Prema, Ph.D...Publisher: .Jp clinical Pub..Publication Date: .2012/10/01..Number of Pages: .1092..Binding kind: .PAPERBACK..Library of Congress: .

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It is present in all the cells except red blood cells. It is named after the discoverer Camillo Golgi. Usually, each cell has one Golgi apparatus. Some of the cells may have more than one Golgi apparatus. Each Golgi apparatus consists of 5 to 8 flattened membranous sacs called the cisternae. Golgi apparatus is situated near the nucleus. It has two ends or faces, namely cis face and trans face. The cis face is positioned near the endoplasmic reticulum. Reticular vesicles from endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus through cis face.

Following the degradation of DNA, the nucleus breaks into many discrete nucleosomal units, which are also called chromatin bodies 6. Cell membrane breaks and shows bubbled appearance 7. Finally, the cell breaks into several fragments containing intracellular materials including chromatin bodies and organelles of the cell. Such cellular fragments are called vesicles or apoptotic bodies 8. Apoptotic bodies are engulfed by phagocytes and dendritic cells. Abnormal Apoptosis Apoptosis within normal limits is beneficial for the body.

Degenerative changes are reversible in most of the cells. Causes for Cell Degeneration Common causes for cell degeneration: 1. Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and/or dysplasia of cell Chapter 1 t Cell 2. Fluid accumulation in the cell 3. Fat infiltration into the cell 4. Calcification of cellular organelles. „ CELL AGING Cell aging is the gradual structural and functional changes in the cells that occur over the passage of time. It is now suggested that cell aging is due to damage of cellular substances like DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids, etc.

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