By Raymond Murphy, Helen Naylor
This ebook of supplementary grammar workouts for ordinary and reduce intermediate scholars of English accompanies the second one version of crucial Grammar in Use. It encompasses a wealth of extra workouts which offer scholars with additional perform of the grammar they've got studied. * offers tough contrastive perform of the types scholars of this point locate such a lot tricky. * deals a wide selection of fascinating workout varieties with transparent representation. * is obviously cross-referenced to the second one variation of crucial Grammar in Use yet is versatile sufficient for use independently. * includes important revision fabric appropriate for sophistication use or for homework.
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Additional info for Essential Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises With key
Principle 6 specifically excludes the element -er from morphemic status in hammer, ladder, otter, badger, under, linger, and bitter (examples from Nida 1949, 60; other examples include udder and rudder). In these examples, the elements with which this -er occurs, namely hamm-, ladd-, ott- etc. occur only in combination with -er. A second type of recurring element that is specifically excluded from morphemic status by Principle 6 goes by the name phonetic symbolism. Nida (1949, 61) gives this example.
No such analysis can ever be final, because new data generally force us to revise our analysis or even change it altogether. Since the problems we consider here are artificially limited, there is usually one "right" solution, but this solution may not remain correct when new data are examined. In analyzing words into morphemes in a language we know, we often easily discover the separate parts because we can recall similar words with which to compare the words under analysis. In working with an unfamiliar language, it is necessary to have a group of similar forms to compare and from which to extract the recurring parts.
Czech. ) T 'you' 'he' 'have' 'know' 'pick' 'get up' 'listen to' mam znám trhám más znás zná trhás trhá vstávám vstávás poslouchám poslouchás vstává poslouchá 'we' ma máme známe trháme vstáváme posloucháme 'you (pl)' mate znáte trháte vstáváte posloucháte 'they' májí znájí trhájí vstávájí poslouchájí 41 MORPHEMES Problem 2-6. Estonian. ) slept' magavad 'they sleep' magasid 'they slept' Problem 2-7. Vogul (Northwestern Siberia). ) 'cradle' nominative locative lative ablative translative instrumental singular dual plural 42 MORPHOLOGY Problem 2-8.