English Grammar: A Function-Based Introduction by T. Givón

By T. Givón

The method of language and grammar that motivates this e-book is unabashedly practical grammar is not only a method of empty principles, it's a ability to an finish, an software for developing concise coherent communique.

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13) This is widespread among American children into their teens. Dwight Bolinger (in per­ sonal communication) notes that in his own speech the frozen form 'gimme it' is acceptable, while 'He gave her it', 'they gave us it', 'she gave him them' etc. are not. 14) Hamburger and Crain (1982). 15) Gruber (1967a). 16) Gruber (1967a). 17) Bowerman (1983). 18) Quoted from Jespersen (1921/1964, p. 320). , p. 322. 20) "At whom the dog barks" by Lore Segal; The New Yorker, Dec. 3, 1990 (p. 45). 38 ENGLISH G R A M M A R 21) For a comparative view of spoken vs.

One sees now that in (44a) 'Sally' is the object of the verb 'please'. In contrast, the adjective 'eager' in the surface structure (44b)/(45) remains an adjective in the deep-structure (48). One also sees now that 'Sally' in (44b), in addition to being the subject of 'eager', is also the subject of the verb 'please'. A similar case of syntactic-semantic ambiguity involves the complex clause: (49) I am looking for someone to teach. Its ambiguity may be pointed out by the expansions: (50) a. I am looking for someone to teach French.

That is, you may only ask about them questions such as: (26) What d o e s - m e a n ? Uttered as part of propositions, as in (24a-d), the very same words now partake in the coding of propositional information. In addition to questions of meaning as in (26), the individual propositions in (24) may now give rise to many questions of information, such as: (27) a. b.  d. e. f. g. h. Was the maid driven insane? Who abused the maid? Who killed the butler? Who did the maid kill? What did the maid kill the butler with?

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