By Karl Ove Nielsen (auth.), M. J. Higatsberger, F. P. Viehböck (eds.)
During the battle years the recommendations for electromagnetic separation of radioactive nuclides have made nice growth. Ever because then additional advancements were entire to split sturdy nuclides and in additional fresh years distinct cognizance has been given to the matter of isolating radioactive nuclides, specially in con nection with spallation and excessive power fission reports. This poses a bit various difficulties, because the quantities of radioactive fabric can be quite small certainly, hugely diluted and the total separation method has frequently to be a truly speedy one, as many of the nuclides have a truly brief half-life. . On various of the larger machines very precious working adventure has been won and it was once, as a result, a great proposal to carry a symposium' overlaying the entire facets of electromagnetic separation, the place technicians may perhaps talk about the hot advances during this large box. it really is to be welcomed that at this symposium all points have been mentioned, from the main points of vacuum structures, in addition to sub jects like magnets, ion assets, scattering mechanisms, to the overall healthiness physics difficulties hooked up, for instance, with the electromagnetic separation of plutonium, in addition to functions of mass separation. those court cases are, hence, crucial for all those that do paintings during this box or ponder to go into into it. Vienna, may perhaps 1961.
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Extra info for Electromagnetic Separation of Radioactive Isotopes: Proceedings of the International Symposium Held in Vienna, May 23–25, 1960
I +3 I 100 I 1·100 1100 1100 100 I E-l 1 E-2 I E-3 E+ll I I I , I ... can be obtained. (iii) Prediction The distribution obtained in the manner described above can be used to predict the enhancements of either unanalysed samples using the available but incomplete mass analysis results or to predict the likely enhancements of future separations. For example the distribution of the Nd 143 could be calculated from the beam distribution (eq. 13) obtained from the 142 and 150 results as follows. Relative Enhancement Factor 47 For every 100 Nd 143 atoms in the 143 pocket there will be: 100 C0 142 - - atoms of 14-2 E+l C0 14 3 100 C0 144 - - - - atoms of 14-4E-l C0 143 100 C0 145 - - - - atoms of 145 E-2 C0 1 43 (l3) 100 C0 146 - E-3 - - - atoms of 14-6 C0 14 3 100 Co 148 - - atoms of 14-8 E-5 C0 143 100 C0 150 - - atoms of 150 E-7 C0 14 3 Calculation of these ratios and converting to percentages will give the Nd 143 mass analysis.
M. Separators are atomic ions of unitary charge beams, the energy of which is about some tens of keY. The theory of the collisions of ions and atoms in this energy range and thermal atoms and molecules is poorly elaborated. A few experimental data are nevertheless available and will be mentioned now. Theory of Isotopic Contamination 23 When a collision occurs, the velocity and the energy of the fast particles are only negligibly modified. J,71,71 +6',71,71 Fig. 5. J,71,71 +Il,71m Fig. 6. Angular distribution of fast U23B atoms originating from scattering in Ar;;on or unitary charge U ions, the energy of which being 30 and 20 keY of collisions is charge exchange or neutralisation.
As announced in the discussion, on page 80 some measurements of energy spread were recently performed, with an improved accuracy. An energy straggling probably due to scattering of the ions by neutrals at the beginning of the acceleration section was observed. The corresponding contamination seems to exist only for heavier isotopes. Its variation is not very simple and the values of the contamination factors can reach about some 10- 4 • Consequently this type of isotopic contamination can still be neglected in simple instruments and in cascades the second stage of which is electrostatic.