By Carlo Altomonte
More and more, rules and legislation typically agreed in the ecu form the political and monetary situations of state states in Europe. besides the fact that, an identical ecu context is greatly altering, primarily as a result of 3 significant fresh advancements: the adoption of the euro, european expansion to the east and the implementation of the Lisbon technique of structural reforms for progress and competitiveness. The publication offers a radical financial research of those 3 occasions and in their implications for either present and capability european rules and ambitions. Carlo Altomonte and Mario Nava have written a really rigorous textual content in an available and jargon-free variety, making sure effortless acquisition of worthy perception to the ecu financial set-up and the potential evolution of european guidelines, together with an replace at the reform of the expansion and balance Pact and of the 2007-13 monetary views. The accessibility of monetary recommendations mixed with the methodological rigor of this up to date textual content may be of significant curiosity to either policy-makers and scholars.
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Extra info for Economics and Policies of an Enlarged Europe
It is in general acknowledged that, by 1 January 1993, the single market for goods was a reality. The single market for capital, persons and services has made great improvements with respect to the pre-1992 situation;28 however, nowadays, it cannot be judged as complete. In some cases, in fact, the geographical dimension of the internal market does not coincide with the EU (as regards, for example, the free circulation of persons); in other cases, the free circulation does not concern all the items of each category (namely capital and services).
In synthesis, the Copenhagen criteria require (1) a political system based on democratic institutions, the rule of law and the respect of human rights and minorities; (2) a functioning market economy able to withstand competitive pressures; (3) the integration of the EU body of law into the national one. See European Commission (2001a) for a full description of these data. In the mid-1990s, the average GDP per capita of the CEECs stood at around one-third of the EU average, compared to 65 per cent in the case of Spain, Portugal and Greece at the time of their accession to the EU.
The Single European Act, instead, introduced (with art. 100A of the Treaty, as it was numbered at the time) the principle of qualified majority voting for most of the decisions related to the creation of the single market. Since then, the weighting of votes has been subject to various changes, as well as the competences and powers of the European institutions involved in the process. 2). The European Council is a special meeting of the Council of Ministers held at the level of heads of state or government; the Intergovernmental Conference is a temporary body made up of High Representatives of the member states set up with the aim of negotiating changes (unanimously agreed) to the existing Treaties.