By Andrew J. Fleming, Kam K. Leang
Covering the entire layout cycle of nanopositioning platforms, this can be the 1st entire textual content at the subject. The publication first introduces techniques linked to nanopositioning phases and descriptions their program in such initiatives as scanning probe microscopy, nanofabrication, info garage, telephone surgical procedure and precision optics. Piezoelectric transducers, hired ubiquitously in nanopositioning purposes are then mentioned intimately together with sensible issues and constraints on transducer reaction. The reader is then given an summary of the kinds of nanopositioner prior to the textual content turns to the in-depth insurance of mechanical layout together with flexures, fabrics, production innovations, and electronics. This technique is illustrated through the instance of a high-speed serial-kinematic nanopositioner. place sensors are then catalogued and defined and the textual content then specializes in control.
Several varieties of keep an eye on are handled: shunt keep watch over, suggestions regulate, strength suggestions keep watch over and feedforward keep an eye on (including an appreciation of iterative studying control). functionality concerns are given significance as are difficulties restricting that functionality corresponding to hysteresis and noise which come up within the remedy of keep watch over and are then given chapter-length consciousness of their personal correct. The reader additionally learns approximately rate services and different matters excited about command shaping, cost drives and electric issues. All options are verified experimentally together with by means of direct software to atomic strength microscope imaging.
Design, Modeling and keep an eye on of Nanopositioning structures can be of curiosity to researchers in mechatronics typically and on top of things utilized to atomic strength microscopy and different nanopositioning purposes. Microscope builders and mechanical designers of nanopositioning units will locate the textual content crucial reading.
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Additional info for Design, Modeling and Control of Nanopositioning Systems
The most common type of electrode is glass-loaded paint printed or sprayed onto the ceramic surface and then heated to create a good electrical contact. Gold is also used for good conductivity with minimum thickness as well as platinum and palladium, but they are more expensive. After manufacture, the piezoelectric ceramic consists of randomly oriented domains; a domain is a microscopic region of material with a net polar orientation. Because of the random domain orientation, the material produces no net effect when mechanically stressed or when voltage is applied.
12d. Although the actual features are oriented in a parallel fashion, hysteresis causes the features to appear curved and distorted. More specifically, the distortion is caused by plotting the information collected about the sample topology with respect to the desired position of the probe. Because of hysteresis, the probe does not achieve the desired position, therefore leading to the distorted image. In addition to poor positioning accuracy, hysteresis causes poor repeatability and the mixing of harmonic content into the displacement response.
On the other hand, the microscopic crystallites of the man-made lead-zirconate-titanate [Pb(Ti,Zr)O3 ], otherwise known as PZT, 2 Ferroelectricity was discovered in the late 1940s (Berlincourt 1981; King et al. 1990). 20 2 Piezoelectric Transducers exhibit a spontaneous polarization due to the arrangements of atoms within the unit cell at room temperature. In the 1960s, the naturally occurring monocrystalline piezoelectric materials were superseded by man-made polycrystalline ceramics such as PZT.