Physics

Darwin meets Einstein : on the meaning of science by Frans W. Saris

By Frans W. Saris

Why do people have interaction in clinical examine? For a few, it’s easily a profession. Others are attracted to technological know-how for its strength monetary rewards. And nonetheless others do it out of competitiveness—to be the 1st of their box. yet in Darwin Meets Einstein Frans W. Saris argues that during our postmodern occasions now we have misplaced the that means of science—that technology isn't approximately pageant, nor approximately getting cash, nor concerning the pleasure of discovery. technological know-how is for survival—the survival of people, the survival of life.

In this available number of essays and columns, Saris brings jointly in dialog a few nice minds—Charles Darwin, Baruch Spinoza, Niko Tinbergen, Francis Bacon, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Franz Kafka, and Albert Einstein—to resolution the query: why technology? With choices like “Diary of a Physicist,” “The medical Life,” “The mom of All Knowledge,” and “Science throughout the having a look Glass of Literature,” Darwin Meets Einstein will entertain its readers and finally inspire them to re-evaluate the meaning—and the purpose—of science.

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Elements de Mécanique quantique - Tome 1

I Les origines de los angeles Th´eorie quantique
I. 1. Les techniques de l. a. body classique
(I. 1. 1) constitution corpusculaire de los angeles mati`ere
(I. 1. 2) Nature ondulatoire de l. a. lumi`ere
(I. 1. three) Le d´eterminisme de los angeles body classique
I. 2. Ondes ´electromagn´etiques et quanta de lumi`ere
I. three. l. a. nature ondulatoire de los angeles mati`ere
(I. three. 1) Les spectres de raies et les ondes de Louis de Broglie
(I. three. 2) Description quantique d’une particule libre : le paquet d’ondes
I. four. Dualit´e onde-corpuscule de los angeles lumi`ere et de l. a. mati`ere
I. five. Exercices sur les bases exp´erimentales de l. a. m´ecanique quantique
II Syst`emes quantiques simples
II. 1. Etat quantique d’une particule libre
(II. 1. 1) Fonction d’onde
(II. 1. 2) Courant de probabilit´e
(II. 1. three) Valeur moyenne et ´ecart quadratique moyen
(II. 1. four) Op´erateur “impulsion” dans l’espace des coordonn´ees
II. 2. Particule dans un potentiel ind´ependant du temps
(II. 2. 1) ideas stationnaires
(II. 2. 2) Quantification de l’´energie
II. three. los angeles barri`ere de potentiel finie : l’effet tunnel
II. four. Le puits quantique
II. five. L’oscillateur harmonique
(II. five. 1) M´ethode de r´esolution polynˆomiale
(II. five. 2) M´ethode des op´erateurs de cr´eation et de destruction
II. 6. Appendice : Fonction g´en´eratrice des polynˆomes d’Hermite et oscillateur harmonique
(II. 6. 1) Orthonormalit´e des fonctions 'n(x) de l’oscillateur harmonique
(II. 6. 2) Valeurs moyennes et probabilit´e de transition
III Fondements de los angeles th´eorie quantique
III. 1. Equation de Schr¨odinger et ses propri´et´es
(III. 1. 1) Spectre de l’op´erateur hamiltonien et element de vue du calcul vectoriel
(III. 1. 2) Le vecteur d’´etat de l’espace d’Hilbert E et ses propri´et´es
(III. 1. three) Repr´esentation des coordonn´ees |ri
(III. 1. four) Repr´esentation des impulsions |pi
(III. 1. five) formula matricielle : Repr´esentation des ´etats d’´energie
(III. 1. 6) D´eg´en´erescence d’un niveau d’´energie
III. 2. constitution de l’espace de Hilbert "H et produits tensoriels d’espaces
III. three. Le processus de mesure et sa description quantique
(III. three. 1) Commutateurs et grandeurs physiques simultan´ement mesurables
(III. three. 2) Grandeurs physiques non simultan´ement mesurables : G´en´eralisation des family d’incertitude
de Heisenberg
III. four. L’´equation d’´evolution
III. five. Les diff´erents sch´emas en m´ecanique quantique
(III. five. 1) Le sch´ema de Schr¨odinger
(III. five. 2) Le sch´ema de Heisenberg
(III. five. three) Le sch´ema d’interaction
III. 6. L’op´erateur de densit´e
III. 7. Int´egrale premi`ere et sym´etrie
(III. 7. 1) Observables compatibles et constantes du mouvement
(III. 7. 2) Sym´etrie et constante du mouvement
(III. 7. three) G´en´erateur d’une transformation de sym´etrie
(III. 7. four) Sym´etrie de translation
III. eight. Sym´etrie par rapport aux variations de particules identiques, les “bosons” et les “fermions”
III. nine. M´ethodes d’approximation pour los angeles r´esolution de l’´equation de Schr¨odinger
(III. nine. 1) Th´eorie de perturbation
(III. nine. 2) M´ethode variationnelle lin´eaire
III. 10. Conclusions : Postulats de l. a. body quantique
III. eleven. Appendice : Le cadre math´ematique de l’espace de Hilbert "H
IV Les moments angulaires en th´eorie quantique
IV. 1. Fonctions propres et valeurs propres du second cin´etique orbital : M´ethode polynˆomiale
IV. 2. Sym´etrie de rotation et second angulaire
IV. three. M´ethode alg´ebrique : Les op´erateurs d’´echelle
IV. four. Repr´esentation matricielle des op´erateurs du second angulaire
IV. five. Le spin d’une particule
(IV. five. 1) Le second magn´etique de l’´electron
(IV. five. 2) Exp´erience de Stern et Gerlach
(IV. five. three) Vecteur d’´etat et op´erateur de spin
(IV. five. four) Pr´ecession du spin dans un champ magn´etique
(IV. five. five) Composition de deux moments angulaires
IV. 6. Appendice : Fonctions sp´eciales associ´ees au second angulaire
(IV. 6. 1) Polynˆomes de Legendre
(IV. 6. 2) Les harmoniques sph´eriques
V Particules dans un champ de strength central
V. 1. Le probl`eme de deux particules en th´eorie quantique
(V. 1. 1) Potentiel `a sym´etrie sph´erique
(V. 1. 2) Vibrations et rotations d’une mol´ecule
V. 2. L’atome hydrog´eno¨ıde
(V. 2. 1) Fonction d’onde totale et ses propri´et´es
V. three. constitution high-quality des atomes alcalins
(V. three. 1) Interactions spin-orbite
(V. three. 2) Corrections relativistes
V. four. Effet de Zeeman des atomes alcalins
(V. four. 1) Atome plac´e dans un champ magn´etique quelconque
(V. four. 2) Effet Zeeman anomal
(V. four. three) Effet Paschen-Back
V. five. Etats quantiques de los angeles mol´ecule diatomique
V. 6. Appendice : Propri´et´es des fonctions sp´eciales de l’atome hydrog´eno¨ıde
(V. 6. 1) Les polynˆomes de Laguerre associ´es
VI Transitions entre ´etats stationnaires
VI. 1. Mouvement d’une particule charg´ee soumise `a un champ ´electromagn´etique
(VI. 1. 1) Le hamiltonien du syst`eme
(VI. 1. 2) motion d’un champ magn´etique constant
(VI. 1. three) Invariance de jauge
VI. 2. Perturbations non stationnaires
(VI. 2. 1) R`egle d’or de Fermi
VI. three. Le rayonnement dipolaire
VI. four. Corrections multipolaires
VI. five. Expression quantique des coefficients d’Einstein
VI. 6. Coefficients d’absorption
VI. 7. R`egles de s´election et le spectre optique d’atome `a un ´electron
(VI. 7. 1) Les r`egles de s´election d’un oscillateur harmonique et d’un atome hydrog´eno¨ıde r´ealiste
VII advent `a l. a. th´eorie quantique non-relativiste des syst`emes
de particules identiques
VII. 1. Le formalisme g´en´eral
VII. 2. program `a l’atome d’h´elium
(VII. 2. 1) interplay d’´echange et magn´etisme
VII. three. L’approximation du champ self-consistant de Hartree et de Hartree-Fock
VIII advent `a l. a. th´eorie quantique de los angeles diffusion par un
potentiel
VIII. 1. part efficace de diffusion
(VIII. 1. 1) part efficace diff´erentielle dans le syst`eme du laboratoire
(VIII. 1. 2) Interpr´etation classique et loi de Rutherford
VIII. 2. Traitement stationnaire
(VIII. 2. 1) Equation int´egrale de l. a. diffusion et answer “approch´ee” : “Approximation de Born”
(VIII. 2. 2) Le r`egle d’Or de Fermi et l’approximation de Born
(VIII. 2. three) M´ethode des ondes partielles
Livres de r´ef´erence
– J. L. Basdevant, M´ecanique quantique, ellipses, 1986.
– J. Hladik, M´ecanique quantique, ´editions Masson, Paris, 1997.
Bibliographie
– D. Blokintsev, Principes de m´ecanique quantique, ´editions Mir, Moscou, 1981.
– J. M. L´evy-Leblond, F. Balibar, Quantique. Rudiments, Inter-Editions, Paris, 1984.
– Cl. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Lalo¨e, M´ecanique quantique, tomes I & II, Hermann, 1980.
– E. Merzbacher, Quantum Mechanics, John Wiley, third ed. , 1998.
– S. Gasiorowicz, Quantum Physics, John Wiley, 1997.
– L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, Pergamon Press, third ed. , 1981.
– V. ok. Thankappan, Quantum Mechanics, John Wiley, second ed. , 1993.
– A. B. Wolbarst, Symmetry and Quantum Mechanics, Van Nostrand Reinhold Comp. , 1977.
– W. Louisell, Radiation and noise in Quantum Electronics, McGraw-Hill, 1964.
– A. Z. Capri, Nonrelativistic Quantum Mechanics, Benjamin/Cummings, 1985.
– J. J. Sakurai, glossy Quantum Mechanics, Benjamin/Cummings, 1985.
– W. Greiner, B. M¨uller, Quantum Mechanics, vol. I & II, Hermann, 1980.
– T. Fliessbach, Quantenmechanik, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 1995.
– R. W. Robinett, Quantum Mechanics, Oxford collage Press, 1997.

Additional resources for Darwin meets Einstein : on the meaning of science

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S A R I S watch TV programmes in which modern developments in materials are being presented for the general public and distributed over the US by satellite. All very different from the average scientific meeting in the Dutch retreat houses, where one can’t start before coffee time and where the participants definitely have to catch the train at tea time otherwise they will be late for dinner at home. We are here with seven PhD students and two group leaders from our lab. Like rich gypsies we stay in two hotel suites for $30 pp/day.

It is life-threatening if the ice breaks behind the front group and they are cut off from supplies. This forces Peary to stop his expeditions several times, in order to prevent death from starvation. Thus he has to make a detour back to his ship. Usually there is not enough time left for a second trip to the Pole before the winter. In order to prevent a complete failure the remaining time is used to map the coastline further and to name interesting locations after the sponsors of the Peary Arctic Club.

This should play a role in the decision to build new power plants, as a study at Utrecht University has shown. Already now there are products, based on solar cells, in which Dutch companies are specialized and have a large advantage over the international competition. Take for instance the ‘King of the Buoys’, Stromag in Noordwijk (the Netherlands). This company places light buoys in waterways and harbours all over the world. There is a lot of interest for their most recent floating light buoy, which has batteries that do not have to be charged because this is done automatically by solar cells.

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