By H. R. Hepburn, H. D. Chandler (auth.), Thomas A. Miller (eds.)
Insects as a bunch occupy a center flooring within the biosphere among bac teria and viruses at one severe, amphibians and mammals on the different. the dimensions and basic nature of bugs current exact difficulties to the coed of entomology. for instance, many commercially to be had in struments are geared to degree in grams, whereas the forces in most cases en countered in learning bugs are within the milligram variety. for this reason, tech niques constructed within the examine of bugs or in these fields focused on the regulate of insect pests are usually designated. equipment for measuring issues are universal to all sciences. Advances occasionally rely extra on how whatever was once performed than on what was once measured; certainly a given box frequently progresses from one strategy to one other as new equipment are stumbled on, constructed, and changed. simply as frequently, a few of these recommendations locate their means into the study room whilst the issues concerned were sufficiently ironed out to allow scholars to grasp the manipulations in a couple of laboratory classes. Many really good suggestions are restrained to at least one particular learn labo ratory. even if equipment could be thought of regular the place they're used, in one other context even the easiest strategies may possibly shop con siderable time. it's the function of this sequence (1) to record new enhance ments in method, (2) to bare assets of teams who've handled and solved specific entomological difficulties, and (3) to explain ex periments that may be appropriate to be used in biology laboratory courses.
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Extra resources for Cuticle Techniques in Arthropods
0° 10° 20° 3Cf 40° S(f 6(f 70° 80° 9(f ANGLE OF ORIENTATION OF FIBERS TO TENSILE STRESS DIRECTION Fig. IS. Tensile stress plotted against orientation of the load application direction with respect to the fiber direction for a sheet of planar isotropic material tested in the x- y plane as defined in Fig. 15. 37 Materials Testing of Arthropod Cuticle Preparations Fig. 19. Fracture of a composite by failure of the matrix occurring around the ends of relatively short-length fibers. /am Vi/l////A Vl)Jl//41 wnW!
The cuticle and muscles of insects fluoresce in UV light, however, and the reemitted light occurs within the human visible spectrum. The insect protein rubber resilin has a characteristic blue fluorescence. , in wing bases) and these may be detected with the aid of a dissection microscope, the specimen being directly illuminated with an ultraviolet hand lamp. Such lamps are sold for observation of fluorescent geological samples. There are various problems associated with ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy.
Cleaning. The cleaning of specimens very largely depends upon what is desired in a given test. Obviously, if one desires to measure the yield stress of a flattened sclerite, the subtending epidermis will contribute to errors of cross-sectional area measurement as also will fragments of muscle or other adhering tissue. For a thick sclerite (50-100 /Lm), cotton wool swabs are effective in removing noncuticular material, while for the very thin and delicate cuticles of larvae and pupae extraneous tissue can easily be teased away with a fine brush.