Urban Planning Development

Cultures, Communities, Identities: Cultural Strategies for by Marjorie Mayo (auth.)

By Marjorie Mayo (auth.)

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Additional info for Cultures, Communities, Identities: Cultural Strategies for Participation and Empowerment

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As the previous chapter pointed out, Freire, the Brazilian adult educationalist addressed precisely this problem when he set out to empower the oppressed to overcome this oppressor within their Communities, Identities and Social Movements 43 own heads, this internalised self-deprecation, seeing themselves as lazy, incapable of learning and unproductive. Giddens has drawn upon interactionist approaches to develop his own approach to the understanding of self-identity in what he has described as ‘the post-traditional order of modernity’ (Giddens, 1991, p.

Ideology, in Althusser’s view, represented ‘the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real relations of existence’ (Althusser, 1984, p. 36). As such, ideology represented a real force in human history. In capitalist society, the State and its ideological apparatuses, such as the educational system and cultural apparatuses reproduce ruling-class ideology, and so reinforce existing (exploitative) relations of production. This base – the relations of production – determined the superstructure, including the spheres of culture, but only in the last instance, rather than crudely or deterministically.

The point to emphasise here is simply this – that the notion of communities of locality is itself problematic. There are alternative approaches, approaches ranging from the backward looking, conservative and essentially exclusive, through to the more forward looking, progressive and inclusive, building links with wider movements for social change, as will be suggested in the subsequent section on the New (and not-so-new) Social Movements. The identity of localities, in any case, as Massey and others have argued, is neither fixed nor politically neutral.

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