By Steven C. Hughes
This booklet offers a meticulous exam of the ideology, constitution, and capabilities of the papal police as they operated within the urban and province of Bologna within the interval ahead of Italian solidarity, and in doing so deals a huge new interpretation of the Risorgimento. the writer argues that when the recovery the hot police quickly stumbled on themselves incapable of dealing successfully with overwhelming difficulties of crime and public order. In permitting Bologna's elites to arm themselves in posse-style "citizen patrols" on events, the papal govt had opened the doorways to reform and, finally, revolution.
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Additional info for Crime, Disorder, and the Risorgimento: The Politics of Policing in Bologna
5, 17—18, 4 0 - 4 9 , 6 1 , 102, 135, v o l . II, p . 6 1 ; Antonielli, Prefetti, p p . 216—17; Londei, " O r g a n i z z a z i o n e , " p p . 111—113. 22 CRIME, DISORDER, AND THE RISORGIMENTO response to yet another new tax imposed upon the peasantry. Large bands of brigands, often swelled by deserters and draft evaders, circulated through various departments terrorizing travelers and landlords alike. But the French-backed regime reacted with vigor, mobilizing the National Guard, establishing summary military courts, and even utilizing parish priests to preach against disorder.
Under Napoleon this all changed drastically. 42 The central government now took responsibility for all social assistance, depriving the nobility of an important 40 41 42 Livio Antonielli, I prefetti delY Italia napoleonica, Bologna: 1983, pp. 233—241. , p. 242. Massimo Marcolin, " T h e Casa d'industria in Bologna during the Napoleonic Period: Public Relief and Subsistence Strategies," Melanges de VEcole Fran$aise de Rome, 1987, pp. 861—877. 20 CRIME, DISORDER, AND THE RISORGIMENTO source of influence and patronage, and supposedly making the entire system more equitable and efficient.
Consalvi also issued strict guidelines on how the decree should be executed. Delegates were given a pass for each sbirro, listing his assigned commune and the number of days allowed to reach it from the date of departure. Only a few sbirri could leave on a given day and precautions were to be taken to prevent regrouping during their travels.