Grammar

Core Syntax: A Minimalist Approach (Core Linguistics) by David Adger

By David Adger

This can be an advent to the constitution of sentences in human languages. It assumes no previous wisdom of linguistic thought and little of easy grammar. it is going to swimsuit scholars coming to syntactic conception for the 1st time both as graduates or undergraduates. it's going to even be invaluable for these in fields akin to computational technology, man made intelligence, or cognitive psychology who want a sound wisdom of present syntactic idea.

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Again, these cannot be added to words in other classes: (45) She is the shortest; happiest; coolest; oldest of the lot! (46) *emotionest, *kindnessest, *removalest, *protestest (47) *listenest, *destroyest, *kneadest, *predictest CHAPTER 2. MORPHOSYNTACTIC FEATURES 28 The last major class, prepositions, do not, in English, change their form at all. So we cannot add any of the morphological endings we have seen so far: (48) at: *atter, through: *throughs, on: *onned, by: *byest In summary, then, we have four major word classes, which we usually abbreviate as just N, V, A and P and which we could distinguish using the four features [N], [V], [A] and [P].

However, as we develp our theory of syntactic relations, we will have cause to treat some features privatively, but others as having values, as described above. 2 Interface Rules Once we’ve decided which features are necessary (and this can only be done by looking carefully at the facts of a language), we can use them to determine various things about the way that certain words are pronounced, or interpreted. That is, we can write interface rules which map from a syntactic structure consisting of features to a morphological (and eventually phonological) structure on the one hand, and to a semantic interpretation on the other.

One final verbal form which we have not discussed as yet is the bare verb form found in English sentences like (96): (96) I am to eat macaroni. (97) I want to eat macaroni (98) I must eat macaroni. Sometimes this bare form of the verb is called the infinitive. Infinitives generally do not mark for agreement (although a kind of agreement is found on infinitives in European Portuguese). We will posit a feature [inf] to characterize infinitives. Other languages mark the infinitive with particular endings.

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