By Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Emerging Infections, Leslie A. Pray, Joshua Lederberg, Stacey Knobler
On the grounds that smallpox eradication, the technology of eradication has replaced and with it, our definitions of what illnesses are attainable to eliminate. although, eradication mustn't ever beget complacency. As has been realized from prior keep watch over or eradication makes an attempt with numerous viral ailments, from yellow fever to influenza, unintended or intentional reintroduction is a true possibility - person who might strike anyplace and for which we have to be absolutely ready. the factors for assessing eradicability of polio, measles, and different viral infections were debated largely. With the removal and eradication of a number of viral illnesses at the horizon, concerns surrounding the cessation of immunization actions turn into incredibly vital. so as to higher comprehend the dynamics of ailment eradication and post-immunization guidelines, the Institute of medication discussion board on rising Infections hosted a two-day workshop (February 1-2, 2001) at the effects of Viral ailment Eradication. This booklet explores the rules underlying the organic demanding situations, clinical interventions, the continued examine time table, and operational issues for post-immunization recommendations for vaccine-preventable viral illnesses, and highlights very important efforts that could facilitate clever selection making.
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Additional resources for Considerations for Viral Disease Eradication
To this end, global laboratory networks currently in place need to be further developed, especially for measles surveillance efforts. Measles surveillance is complicated by the fact that measles cases can be mistaken for dengue, rubella, scarlet fever, and roseola; thus, differential diagnosis based on clinical symptoms can be difficult, and laboratory surveillance is very important for detecting and reporting all cases. The measles laboratory network in the Americas is by far the most highly developed and should serve as a model for networks in other parts of the world.
Who would need to be vaccinated? Where would the vaccine come from? And how would it be released? To complicate matters, today’s population is much more susceptible to infection than it was in 1946, and emergency vaccination measures taken at that time were probably to some extent supererogatory since at least half of all New Yorkers were probably already vaccinated. It is likely that a newly introduced case would spread much more rapidly today than it would have done several decades ago. Drawing on the lessons learned from smallpox eradication and as summarized above and discussed in detail throughout this report, a responsible post-eradication strategy must include provisions for vaccine reserves and contingency planning in case the disease re-emerges; continued surveillance and diagnostic activities; and research on and development of new vaccines and antiviral therapeutic drugs.
A one-time-only mass campaign conducted in a very short period of time during the low season for disease transmission and aimed at vaccinating all children between one and fourteen years of age with one dose of measles-containing vaccine (either M, MR, or MMR) was recommended. These “catch-up” campaigns generally achieve 90–95% coverage of the target population. 2. Maintenance of a routine measles vaccination program aimed at vaccinating all new birth cohorts immediately after these children reach 12 months of age was recommended.