Civics Citizenship

Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry into by Giovanni Sartori

By Giovanni Sartori

]At a time of fast switch in primary and jap Europe, there's frequent curiosity in replacement types of industry financial system. Is it attainable to mix the easiest gains of capitalism with the easiest positive aspects of socialism? the 1st a part of the amount examines the assumption of `Agathotopia' recommend by means of Nobel-Prize winner James Meade; the second one with employee participation and fiscal democracy, together with the Yugoslav event and the 3rd with partnership at macro- and micro-levels.

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But no great harm would follow from the adoption - in the particular areas where ethnic minorities remain underrepresented - of (say) three-member constituencies in which voters are given two cumulable votes. 4 A CODA ON JAPAN Now back to Japan and to the question as to how the electoral system it practiced until 1993 has to be understood and classified. , 1986, pp. ], the limited vote may be called the single non-transferable vote. The winners are those candidates who have collected the largest number of votes.

To be sure, these alternative routes to minority protection and representation require multi-member districts, while Gerrymandering performs at its best with single-member districts. But no great harm would follow from the adoption - in the particular areas where ethnic minorities remain underrepresented - of (say) three-member constituencies in which voters are given two cumulable votes. 4 A CODA ON JAPAN Now back to Japan and to the question as to how the electoral system it practiced until 1993 has to be understood and classified.

In principle, SNTV is supposed to hurt large parties and to favor medium-sized ones. In part this intent is accomplished. Assuming a four-member constituency (the average size), the vote cost of the last winner, the fourth one, ranges at the 20 percent level (and can descend to 15 percent in the fivemember constituencies). But the aforesaid intent is also largely defied by the LDP's ability to steer clear of two miscalculations, respectively, overnomination (presenting too many candidates that are all defeated) and undernomination (wasting too many votes on a single candidate).

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