Grammar

Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic by Adeline Patard, Frank Brisard

By Adeline Patard, Frank Brisard

This quantity addresses difficulties of semantics concerning the research of stressful and element (TA) markers in quite a few languages, together with Arabic, Croatian, English, French, German, Russian, Thai, and Turkish. Its major curiosity is going out to epistemic makes use of of such markers, wherein epistemic modality is known as indicating “a measure of compatibility among the modal international and the actual global” (Declerck). All contributions, furthermore, take on those difficulties from a kind of cognitive standpoint, with a few of them insisting at the have to offer a unifying cause of all utilization kinds, temporal and non-temporal, and them all accepting the idea that the semantics of TA different types primarily refers to subjective, instead of goal, issues. the quantity additionally represents one of many first makes an attempt to collect money owed of TA marking (in numerous languages) which are explicitly set in the framework of Cognitive Grammar. eventually, this quantity goals to give a contribution to developing an expertise that modal that means components are at once correct to the research of the grammar of time.

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Extra info for Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality (Human Cognitive Processing)

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In Declerck & Reed (2001), conditionals with such a clause are called ‘nonneutral theoretical-P conditionals’. This is because ‘conditional clause’ and ‘head clause’ are abbreviated to ‘P-clause’ and ‘Q-clause’, respectively, given that the standard logical representation of a conditional sentence is ‘if P, (then) Q’. Declerck and Reed (2001) propose the ‘possible-world typology of conditionals’ that is represented in Figure 1. In this typology, P-propositions are either factual or theoretical.

Thus, The car can be repaired says nothing about the chances that the car will be repaired. b. Within epistemic modality, two major possibilities must be distinguished. In most cases there is specified epistemic modality. This means that the epistemic relation between the modal world and the factual world is specified. For example, the modal world created by may in Dave may be lying is related to the factual world in terms of epistemic possibility: the residue proposition has the factuality value ‘possibly factual’.

This chart can be expanded by adding ‘indeterminate epistemic modality’ – see Section 5(b). The result is Figure 3. 7. Root (nonepistemic) modality a. As noted in Section 5(a), sentences that are interpreted in terms of root modality (or nonepistemic modality) are concerned with factors that determine the actualization of the residue situation in a nonfactual world, as in the following examples: The definition of modality  (41) You may leave tomorrow. ) (42) You {can/cannot} buy tickets in the office over there.

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