By Augustus A. White
Covers scoliosis & the restricted function of bracing, spinal trauma, together with burst fractures, & the function of activities & athetics in cervical backbone accidents.
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Extra info for Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine (2nd Edition)
That with aging there is an increase in the relative amount of fibrous tissue. The interspinous ligaments connect adjacent spines. and their attachments extend from the root to the apex of each process. They are narrow and elon gated in the thoracic region. broader and thicker in the lumbar region. and only slightly developed in the neck. The supraspinous ligament originates in the liga mentum nuchae and continues along the tips of the spinous processes as a round. slender strand down to the sacrum.
I7·" Roaf claimed that it is not possible to dis rupt the anterior longitudinal ligament by flexion or extension of Lhe spine. 250 In one set of experiments. specimens of a stan dard size were used. D These samples were loaded up to one-third of the failure load. and the load-defor mation curves were plotted. Three parameters were measured: Lhe maximum deformation. the residual or permanent deformation. and the energy loss of hysteresis. All the biomechanical parameters were found to decrease wilh age.
Hysteresis seems 10 vary wilh the load applied and the age of the disc, as well as its level. The larger the load, the greater the hysteresis. lt is largest in very young people and smallesl in the middle-aged. Vir· gin observed that the lower thoracic and upper lum bar discs showed less hysteresis than the lower lum· bar discs. He also observed that hysteresis decreased when the same disc was loaded a second time. This Fatigue Tolerance Fatigue tests of the disc are important for establish· ing the number of load cycles that can be tolerated before radial and circumferential tears develop.