Grammar

Clause Structure and Language Change by Adrian Battye, Ian Roberts

By Adrian Battye, Ian Roberts

The Principles-and-Parameters method of linguistic conception has prompted a tremendous quantity of labor in comparative syntax during the last decade or so. A normal end result of the expansion in synchronic comparative paintings has been a renewed curiosity in questions of diachronic syntax, and this assortment testifies to that pattern. those papers concentrate on questions of clause constitution that have turn into a important subject matter of theoretical paintings because the pioneering paintings within the past due Nineteen Eighties via Chomsky, Pollock, and others. The languages studied through a global roster of individuals contain all of the significant Romance and Germanic languages. This quantity is of critical significance for somebody operating in theoretical, comparative, or ancient syntax.

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Jaeggli, O. (1982) Topics in Romance Syntax. Dordrecht: Foris. Jaeggli, O. and K. Safir, eds. (1989) The Null Subject Parameter. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Kayne, R. (1984) Connectedness and Binary Branching. Dordrecht: Foris. van Kemenade, A. (1987) Syntactic Case and Morphological Case in the History of English. Dordrecht: Foris. Klima, E. A. A. , Modern Studies in English: Readings in Transformational Grammar. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Koopmann, H. (1984) The Syntax of Verbs: From Verb Movement Rules in the Kru Languages to Universal Grammar.

3 However, we do know that WHY UG NEEDS A LEARNING THEORY 43 there were two major steps in the loss of the old verb-second system and the evolution of the "residual" system of modern English. We know that English ceased to be a full verb-second language in Rizzi's sense by the early 15th century. From this time verbs ceased to occur generally in C, occurring there only when preceded by certain kinds of elements, particularly a +wh feature. ). Schmidt (1980:209) claims that verb second declines in frequency with initial negative phrases, being re-established in the 16th century.

Since a verb-second C always contains Agr (unlike other Cs), this condition requires the presence of some constituent in the specifier of those Cs. However, no further condition specifies the nature of that constituent. Roberts suggests that the condition in (23) is related to the Extended Protection Principle of Chomsky (1982). Another approach is to say that the topicalization process triggers the V-fronting process. This idea was first developed by Taraldsen (1986), and is argued for here by Lightfoot (Chapter 2).

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