By Hans-Dieter Klingemann, Dieter Fuchs
Singling out the 10 basic parts of the view that consultant democracy is below danger, the publication is going directly to attempt them empirically by means of drawing at the notable facts set provided via the ideals in govt examine project.
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Additional resources for Citizens and the State (Beliefs in Government)
At the level of the political system, this contradiction took the form of collective taxation along with the highly particular expenditure of scarce tax revenues. This contradiction, which cannot be legitimated by prevailing values and norms, could, according to Habermas, be kept 6 Citizens and the State latent only by compensating citizens with continuous growth in income, leisure, and security. Habermas argued that, for various reasons, the governmental system is increasingly less successful in fulfilling the growing demands of citizens.
Rather, low electoral turnout might be taken as an indication of satisfaction with the existing political system, while high turnout might indicate destabilizing levels of societal conflict (Tingsten 1937: 225; Lipset 1959: 32; Dittrich and Johansen 1983). On this basis, Almond and Verba (1963) defended what they termed 'the myth of civic competence', whereby what counts in a stable liberal democracy are not politically active citizens, but politically competent citizens who believe that they can, if they so choose, influence the political process.
We use the term 'state' as a colloquial expression for the differentiated governmental system. 2. See, inter alia, Kaase (1984, 1990); Offe (1985); Beck (1986); Held (1987); Streeck (1987); Dalton (1988); Gibbins (1989); Rodel, Frankenberg, and Dubiel (1989); Dalton and Kuchler (1990); Inglehart (1990a); Crook et al. (1992). 3. This also applies in varying degrees to prominent representatives of a model of participatory democracy among normative democratic theorists. The proposals put forward by writers such as Pateman (1970), Macpherson (1977), Poulantzas (1978), and Barber (1984) aim to extend participation rather than to replace representative institutions.