By Pratim Kumar Chattaraj
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In one variation of the process, acetylene is completely hydrated with water in a single operation at 68 to 73o C using the mercuric-iron salt catalyst. The acetaldehyde is partially removed by vacuum distillation and the mother liquor recycled to the reactor. The aldehyde vapors are cooled to about 35o C, compressed to 37 psi (253 kPa), and condensed. It is claimed that this combination of vacuum and pressure operations substantially reduces heating and refrigeration costs. The commercial process of choice for acetaldehyde production is the direct oxidation of ethylene.
165oC, density: ca. 42) where the backbone or main structural chain is completely or essentially composed of repeating oxymethylene units (-CH2O-)n. The polymers are derived chiefly from formaldehyde (methanal, CH2=O), either directly or through its cyclic trimer, trioxane or 1,3,5-trioxacyclohexane. Formaldehyde polymerizes by both anionic and cationic mechanisms. , pyridine). Boron trifluoride (BF3) or other Lewis acids are used to promote polymerization where trioxane is the raw material. In the process, anhydrous formaldehyde is continuously fed to a reactor containing well-agitated inert solvent, especially a hydrocarbon, in which monomer is sparingly soluble.
It is not easy to volatilize water from concentrated solutions of sulfuric acid, but azeotropic distillation can sometimes help. The sulfonation reaction is exothermic, but not highly corrosive, so sulfonation can be conducted in steel, stainless-steel, or cast-iron sulfonators. A jacket heated with hot oil or steam can serve to heat the contents sufficiently to get the reaction started, then carry away the heat of reaction. A good agitator, a condenser, and a fume control system are usually also provided.