By S. Dhein
Crucial conversation mechanism among cardiac cells is electric transmission through low resistance pathways, the so-called hole junction channels. This booklet presents a finished evaluate of what's identified approximately cardiac hole junctions. An creation into some of the facets of activation propagation and coupling within the middle is by means of an in depth description of the constitution and variety of hole junctions, together with amino acid sequences and species variability. next chapters speak about their distribution, body structure and services and the rules of expression. the writer then is going directly to placed those uncomplicated findings right into a scientific context - the adjustments of hole junction distribution during cardiac ailment and their implications. one other bankruptcy offers pharmacological methods to the modulation of hole junction channel conductivity and descriptions attainable healing techniques. the ultimate a part of the booklet describes the tools of research together with double mobile voltage clamp, immunohistochemistry, isolation methods for hole junctions and dye coupling assays.
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Extra resources for Cardiac Gap Junctions: Physiology, Regulation, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
1996] described that Na+/HCO–3 cotransport and Na+/H+ exchange contribute to the rate of cell-to-cell electrical uncoupling in ischemic myocardium potentially related to an attenuated Na-dependent calcium loading. In addition, inhibition of proton extrusion with 1 mmol/l amiloride was reported to enhance the effects of changes in pH on gj [Firek and Weingart, 1995]. , 1985]. This has been used experimentally to uncouple preparations. The CO2-induced effect is reversible. The decrease in coupling after exposure to CO2 has been ascribed to the consecutive fall in pHi [Kolb and Somogyi, 1991].
However, besides Cx40 Davis 3 Distribution of Gap Junctions in the Heart 29 et al.  did find some Cx43 and Cx45 in human AV node. The reason for this discrepancy is not yet known. Since, however, van Kempen et al.  could show that the connexin distribution patterns are to a large extent comparable between various mammalian species, these data taken together show that Cx40 is probably the predominant connexin in the AV node, and Cx43 plays only a minor role. , 1994]. However, this seems to depend on the species investigated.
8. The phylogenetic ‘connexin family tree’ according to Bennett et al. . Branching points with closed ovals represent gene duplications whereas branching points without ovals represent speciation. X>xenopus; Ch>chicken; ms>mouse; r>rat; bov> bovine; c>canine; h>human. , 1991]. , 1992]. Regarding species variability there are some points to mention. First, a variability in the distribution pattern of a distinct connexin isoform is possible, for example with Cx40 which is normally found in atria of many species but not in rat atria.