Physiology

BRS Physiology (5th Edition) (Board Review Series) by Linda S. Costanzo

By Linda S. Costanzo

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Written by way of very hot body structure professor Linda S. Costanzo, this revised 5th variation offers a very good body structure overview for college students getting ready for the USMLE Step 1. The ebook concisely covers key body structure rules and comprises scientific correlations to stress connections among body structure and scientific medicine.

* NEW! Full-color layout, circulation charts, illustrations, and tables that summarize info for handy review
* each one bankruptcy is written within the well known Board evaluate Series (BRS) define layout and contours bolded keyword phrases to streamline your study
* Over 350 USMLE-style questions, solutions, and rationales either electronically and in print make stronger your body structure review
* A FREE spouse web site deals an internet booklet and an interactive query financial institution with all of the questions from the ebook so that you can customise your overview tests!

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Hormones or neurotransmitters Depolarization Opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels IP3 Hormones or neurotransmitters Ca2+ release from SR Open ligand-gated Ca2+ channels [Ca2+] Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) myosin-light-chain kinase Phosphorylation of myosin light chains Myosin ATPase Myosin~P + actin Cross-bridge cycling FIGURE 1-16 Sequence of events in contraction of smooth muscle. Tension 98761_Ch01 5/7/10 6:38 PM Page 22 22 Board Review Series: Physiology ■ There is no troponin; instead, Ca2+ regulates myosin on the thick filaments.

B. Muscarinic receptors ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ are located in the heart (M2 ), smooth muscle (M3 ), and glands (M3 ). , decreased heart rate, decreased conduction velocity in AV node). , increased GI motility, increased secretion). are activated by ACh and muscarine. are blocked by atropine. Mechanism of action: (1) Heart SA node: Gi protein, inhibition of adenylate cyclase, which leads to opening of K+ channels, slowing of the rate of spontaneous Phase 4 depolarization, and decreased heart rate. (2) Smooth muscle and glands: Gq protein, stimulation of phospholipase C, and increase in IP3 and intracellular [Ca2+].

Receptor types in the ANS (Table 2-2) 1. Adrenergic receptors (adrenoreceptors) a. `1 Receptors ■ ■ ■ ■ are located on vascular smooth muscle of the skin and splanchnic regions, the gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder sphincters, and the radial muscle of the iris. , contraction or constriction). are equally sensitive to norepinephrine and epinephrine. However, only norepinephrine released from adrenergic neurons is present in high enough concentrations to activate α1 receptors. Mechanism of action: Gq protein, stimulation of phospholipase C, and increase in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and intracellular [Ca2+].

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